16 Scientific Explanation of Gaytri Mantra
17 VIVAHA PRAKARANA
V I V A H A P R A K AR A N A
Gotra / Pravara Lakshanas and broad classifications: Basically speaking the Progeny of Sapta Rishis viz. Vishwamitra, Jamadagni, Bharadwaja, Gautama, Atri, Vasishtha, Kasyapa plus of Agastya is known as Gotra. But keeping in view the saying: Gotraanaantu Sahasraani Prayutaayarbudaani- cha/ Gotras are countless. But major ones are classified in forty nine categories based on the availability of Pravaraas. Similar Gotras and Pravaras are considered as deterrents some times. But there are instances of dis-similarity as there could be Eka Pravara Saamya, or Dwi Pravara Samya too. However the General Ruling is only against the application of Eka Gotra but not so in Eka Pravara. Now the forty nine Gotras are as below: Bhrigu Ganaas are seven viz. Vatsa, Bida, Aashtimshena, Vaatsyaa, Vatsapurodhisa, Baijamathita, Yaska, Mitreyava, Vainya, and Shunakaas; Angirasa Ganaas are seventeen viz.Aayasya, Shaaraddhata, Koumanda, Deergha Tamasa, Karenupaalaya, Vaama Deva, Aoushnasa, Rahugana, Soma raajaka, Bruhadyuktha, Utathya, Raaghuva; Atri Ganaas are six viz. Atreya, Gavishthara, Vaakbhuktaka, Mudgala, Atithaya and Vaamarathya; Sumangala, Beejavaapa, Dhananjaya, Baleya; Vishwamitra Ganaas are ten viz. Kushika, Lohita, Roukshaka, Kaamakaayana, Aja, Kataa, Dhananjaya, Aghamarshana, Purana annd Indrakoushika.; Kashyapa ganaas are three viz. Nidhruva, Rebha and Shandilya; Vasishtha Ganaas are four viz.Vasishthaas, Kuninus, Upamanyus and Parasharas and Agastya Ganas are four viz. Idhmavaaha, Saambhavaaha, Somavaaha,Yagnavaaha, Darbhavaaha, Agastya, Purnimaasa, Himodaka, and Paanika. It is possible there might be many more than this number. It is also stated that Bhrigu Ganas are only seven since Vatsa and Bida Ganas were merged into Jaamadagya ganas. In Vatsa Ganaas, there are some hundred two plus differences noticed including Markandeyas and Maandokaas. Their Pravara Rishis are five viz. Bhargava, Chyaavana, Aapnavaana, Auorva and Jaamadagnya. As regards, Angirasa Ganas, there are three kinds viz. Goutama, Bhradwaja, Kevala Rishis. Gautama-Angirasas have ten Ganas. Among Bharadwaajas and their four major Shakhaas ie. Bharadwaajas, Gargas, Rishis and Kapis, Vivahas are dis approved. Bharadwaaja gotra bhedas are over hundred sixty. Kevala- Angirasaas are six-folded viz. Haritasaas, Kutsas, Kanwas, Radhitaras, Vishnu Vriddhaas and Mudgalaas. Haarita Gotra bhedaas are as many as twenty two. Their Pravaraas are Angirasa-Ambarisha- Youvanaashva. For Kutsas the Pravara is Angirasa-Mandhata-Koutsa and so forth for the rest of the Rishis as afore mentioned. Haritasa-Kutsa Gotra Vivahas are forbidden. Atri Gotra bhedas are more than ninety four and here again among theAtri Ganas inter-Gotra weddings are not allowed since their Gotras and Pravara are invariably identical. Coming to Vishwamitra Ganaas, they are ten in number viz. Kushikaas, Lohitaas, Roukshakaas, Kamakayanas, Ajas, Katis, Dhananjayas, Aghamarshanas, Puranas, and Indra Koushikaas. Kashyapas are of three types: Nidhravas, Rebhas, and Sandilaas. Mutual weddings are forbidden in their cases also.
Vatsa: These have three alternative Pravasas viz: Bhargava-Chyaavana-Aapavaana-Ourva-Jaamdagnya or Bhargava- Ourva-Jaamadagnya or Bhargava- Chyaavana-Apnavaana
Bida: Bhargava-Chyavana-Aapnavaana-Ourva-Vaida or Bhargava-Ourva-Jamadgnya Aarshtimshena: Bhargava-Chyaavana-Aapnavaana-Aarshtimshena-Anupa or Bhargava-Aarshtimshena-Anupa Vaatsya: Bhargava-Chyaavana-Aapnavaana Vatsapurodhasa: Bhargava-Chyavana-Aapnavaana-Vaatsya-Pourodhasa Baijamathita: Bhargava-Chyaavana-Aapnavaana- Baija-Mathita Yastaka: Bhargava-Vaitahavya-Saavetasa Mitreyava: Bhargava-Vaadhyashwa-Daivodaasa or Bhargava-Chyavana-Daivodaasa Vainya: Bhargava-Vainya-Paartha Shounaka: Three Pravaras viz. Shounaka or Gaartsamada or Bhargava-Gaartsamada or Bhrgava-Shounhotra. Vedavishwa Jyotisha: Bhargava-Veda Vaishwa- Jyotisha Shaatharaamathara: Bhargava-Shaathara-Maathara (Note: Excepting Yatstaka, inter-marriages are allowed)
Ayasya: Angirasa-Aayasya-Goutama Shaaraddhata: Angirasa-Goutama-Sharadhata Koumanda: Angirasa-Aotathya-Kaakshivata- Goutama-Koumanda or Angirasa- Aoutathya-Goutama-Aoujisha-Kaakshivata or Angirasa-Aouthya-Kaakshivata Dirgha Tamasa: Angirasa-Aouthya-Kaakshivata-Goutama-Dirgha Tamasa or Angirasa-Aouthya- Dirgha Tamasa Karenupaalaya:Angirasa- Gautama-Karenupaalaya Vaamadeva: Angirasa-Vaamadeya- Goutama or Angirasa- Vaamadeva-Barhadyukta Aoushanasa: Angirasa- Goutama- Aoushnasa Rahugana: Angirasa-Raahugana- Gouytama Somaraajaka: Angiras- Somarajya-Goutama Bruhudhyuktha: Angirasa-Bruhudhyuta-Goutama Uthyaa: Angirasa-Aouthya- Goutama Raaghuva: Angirasa- Raghuva-Goutama (Note: Inter-Gotra marriages not allowed )
Bharadwaaja: Angirasa-Barhaspatya-Bharawaaja Garga : Angirasa-Barhaspatya-Bhardwaja-Shounya-Gaargya or Angirasa-Shounya-Gargya or Bharadwaja- Gargya- Shounya Ruksha: Angirasa-Barhaspatya- Bharadwaja-Vaandana-Maatavachasa Kapaya: Angirasa-Saamahavya-Aourukshaya or Angirasa-Aamahavya- Aourukshaya Atmabhuva: Angirasa-Bharadwaaja-Barhaspatya-Vara-Ammabhuva (Note: Inter Gotra marriages not allowed)
Harithasa: Angirasa-Ambarisha-Youvanaashwa ; In place of Angirasa, some Haritasa Gotras use Mandhata too. Kutsa: Angirasa- Mandhaatru- Koutsa Kanwa: Angirasa- Aajameedha-Kanva or Angirasa- Ghoura-Kanwa Ratheetara: Angirasa-Vairupa- Rathitara or Angirasa-Vairupa-Parshwadashwa or Ashtaadamshtra-Parshwadash-Vairupa Vishnu vriddha:Angirasa- Pourukutsthya-Traasadaswa Mudgula: Angirasa- Bhaamyashwa- Moudugalya or Angeras-Taarksya-Mougulya. Note: in this case Paraspara Vivahas are allowed except in Haridasa and Kutsa.
Atreya: Atreya- Aarchanaanasa-Shyavaashwa Gavishthara:Atreya-Aarchanaanasa-Gavishthara or Atreya-Gavishthara-Pourvaathita Vaakbhuktaka: Atreya- Archanaanasa- Savaakbhuktaka Mudgula: Atreya-Archanaanas-Pourvaathita Atithaya: Atreya-Archaanasa-Atitha / Gavishthara Vaarathha: As above
(Note: Neither among themselves nor with Vasishta-Vishwamitra Ganas, marriages are allowed.)
Nidhruva: Kaashyapa-Avatsaara -Naidhruva-Shandilya Raibhya: Kaashyapa- Avatsaara-Raibhya Shandilya: Kaashyapa- Avatsaara-Shandilya or Kaashyapa-Asita-Devala
(Note: Inter-Gotra Vivahas are not allowed.)
Vasishtha: Vasishtha- Indrapramada- Aabharadvasu Kundina: Vasishtha- Maitravaruna-Koundinya Upamanyava: Vasishtha-Indrapramada- Aabharadvasu or Vasishtha-Aabharadvasu-Indrapramada Parashara: Vasishtha-Shaaktya-Parasharya
(Note: Paraspara Vivahas are disallowed.)
Idhmavaaha: Agastya- Daadharyachyuta-Idhmavaaha Sambhavaaha: Agastya- Daadharyachyuta-Sambhavaaha Somavaaha: Agastya-Daadharyachyuta-Somavaaha Yagnyavaaha: Agastya-Daadharyachyuta- Yagnavaaha Darbhavaaha: Agastya- Daadharyachyuta-Darbhavaaha Saaravaaha: Agastya-Daadharyachyuta-Saaravaaha Agastya: Agastya-Maahendra-Maayobhava Purnaamaasa: Agastya- Pournomaasa-Paarana Himodaka: Agastya-Haimavarchi-Haimodaka Paanika: Agastya-Painayaka-Paanika
Note: No weddings in view of Sagotrata and Sa Pravatwa. Further, marriages are not possible between the Gotras of Bhardwaja and Vishwamitra, Kashyapa and Vasishtha, Vasishtha and Atri, Atri and Vishwamitra and so on.
Sagotra Kanyaa Vivaha Prayaschitta: In the event of wedding between Sagotraas and Sa Pravara either out of ignorance or with full knowledge, the least that has to be done to leave that bride and perform Chandrayana Prayaschitta. If this fact was already known before the wedding then the Prayaschitta be doubled. Even the bride has to observe half of the Prayaschitta. Details of Chandrayana Vrata Vidhi have been mentioned in the foregoing pages. Abandoning the wife on this count of Sagotra-Sapravara is not so much in terms of the observance of house hold duties as to forsake her for performing Punya Karyas including sleeping together and begetting children unless the Prayaschittha is duly executed. After the Prayaschitta, there has to be separation of bed and the outcomes for six years. In the even of non observance in this manner, the progeny and the partners in wedlock are stated to assume ‘Chandalatwa’ which occurs on three counts; Yama Smriti is quoted to state that there were three kinds of Chandalaas viz. those who assume Sanyasa formally, then reverts back to Garhastya, and beget children then the progeny are bad;! Some Vivaha Nishedhaas: Prayudwaaha or exchanges of Vivahas by way of giving one’s son in wedding to else’s daughter and vice versa are to be strictly avoided unless due exreme economic and such other compulsions as the married life of either or both the parties concerned might be affected or the progeny might miss health, longevity and fulfillment. Also two weddings by a couple without gap of at least a year is preventable unless inevitable. In the case of an unfortunate death of a married daughter precipitating another marriage of the deceased with her younger sister with the same son-in-law has been a common practice in the days of yore or even now. Similarly the son-in- law concerned seeking to marry elsewhere even within a reasonable time of atleast a year would be a sign of curse and eventual misfortune. Again Samana Sanskaraas like Upanayana or Vivaha or even the earlier ones to brothers of the same parentage must not be performed within a year or so. Half way through the construction of a house and performance of a Vivaha in the family are also avoidable. Any wedding in the family of a nephew or niece or son or daughter must necessarily have a gap of minimum six months. In oher words, three Auspicious Karyas in the same family should have a gap os six months. Much less that three Agni Karyas or Shubha Karyas like Upanmayana or wedding must be spaced by at least three months. Again there must be a gap of six months between Son’s wedding and that of the daughter. Also, do not perform bigger Shubha karya and then a small one on the same Mandapa since the Mandapa size and significance of the former function would be appropriate but not so with the smaller function. However necessary functions though smaller and inevitable like Naimittika Shantis and Garbha daanas be performed as they are time bound, but Griha Praveshas, Vratodyaapanas etc could be perhaps postponed. Nirbhandha Parishkaara: The normal Ruling is that Samaana samskaaraas should not be accomplished to two brothers in a family, much less like Vivahas without a gap of a year or so. But in case of necessity or requirement, this ‘Nirbhandhana’ could be waived by Dina Bheda, Mandapa Bheda, Kartru Bheda, and if possible Lagna bheda. However, for step children the basic requirement itself is a gap of six months. Pratikula Vichara: In the unfortunate eventuality of death of a ‘Sagotra Tripurusha’ or ‘Sagotra Tripurushi’ either on the Vara or Vadhu’s side after Vivaha-Lagna Nirnaya there would naturally be a Dosha as one needs to take views in the perspective of both Vaidika and Loukika view point ie Theoretical and Practical manner. There is ‘Vaagdaana Rupa Vidhi’ and another is ‘Tithi Lagna Nischaya-Tambula Pradaana Vidhi’. One has to take into account the ‘Sagotra Tripurushis’ ie. Vadhu’s parents, Grand parents and unwed aunt, while Sagotra Tripurushas on the Varu’s side are his Parents, Grand parents, brother/ sister in law who are all Sapindikas and the rest are called the Para Tri Purushaas.If any of them is no more, the possibility is that they are aged or in advance stage if sickness and the wedding be postponed and Shanti Karya be performed after the obsequies and Ashuchi. If both the parents are gone, then the wedding bev abandoned. The Ashuchi in the event of the father’s death is for one year, for mother it is for six months; if it is a brother or his son or any other Sapindakas then the Ashuchi is for a month. If father’s brother or grand father or grand mother or Unmarried Sister died then also the waiting period is one month etc. Once the obstacle in terms of waiting time is over, then revival of the wedding proposal be done and after prerforming Vinayaka Shanti, Shri Puja and other required Shantis, the wedding be duly accomplished. In this context, Shri Pujanaadi Shanti is performed by organising hundred and eight Tilaajya Homaas with the Mantras viz. Shriye Jaata addressed to Shri Devi, Idam Vishnu invoking Bhagavan Vishnu, Triambakam Yajaamahe Mantra to Rudra and Param Mrityo in favour of Yama Dharma Raja. At the end of the Tilaajya Homa, the Mantra be recited: Om Bhuh Swaahaa Mrityur nashyataam Snushaayai Sukham Vardhataam Swaaha/ Then there should be Go daanaas. Precautions before Vivaha: Before Upanayana and Vivahaas, one should take the precaution that during the Shubha Karyaas starting from Naandi Shraadha Puja upto Mandapo -dvasana, no predictable clashes of ensuing dates should intervene like Pitru-Maatru Shraddha Tithis, Darsha Shraddhas, Maasa Sankranti –Manvadi Shraddha / Tarpanas. It is stated that Nanndi Puja be performed upto ten days before the Vivaha: Eka vimshatyahrayagne Vivahey Dasha Vaasaraah, Trishatchoulopanayaney Naadi Shraadhaam vidheeyatey/ (Naandi Shraaddha be performed within twenty one days before Yangaas,within ten days before Vivaha, three days for Choula Karma and within six days before Upanayana. Once Nandi Shraddha is performed, Vivahas would be free from Jaata marana Mrita -ashoucha etc. This is in view of the Ruling: Vivaha Vrata Yagneshu Shraaddhey Homaarchaney Japey, Aarabdhey Sutakam nasyaadanaarabdetu sutakam/ Prarambho varanam yagney sankalpo vratasatrayoh, Naandimukham Vivaahaadou Shraadhey paaka parikriyaa/ ( In the context of Vivaha, Vrata, Yagnya, Shraaddha, Homa, Pujana and Japa, no ‘Sutaka’ could affect once these Karyas are in progress; the commencement of Yagna occurs with Varana, Vrataadis are intiated with Sankalpa, and Vivahaadi like Upanayana are initiated by Naandi Shraaddha once ‘Paaka Parikrya Prokshana’ or the formal offering of the cooked Prashada.). Thus after Naandi Shraaddh is accomplished, one could safely take the Bhojana of the Vivaha even if the Aashoucha occurs. Rajo dosha sutaka nirnaya: It is highly essential to ensure that the bride should be free from the apprehension of the occurrence of menses period any where in the vicinity of the wedding programs. If this does happen unfortunately, the parents and the brothers of the bride would be adveresly affected with the risk of misfortune and Naraka Paata. The Kanya and the husband might become infertile . Re-eligibility of marriage after the menses period of the Kanya would be restored by the Kanyaa Data on Go daana and Brahmana Bhojanas. On her part, the Kanya has to observe a day’s Upavasa and after breaking the fast by Go-Ksheera performm Ratna Bhushana Daana for revalidating her eligibility to wed. The Bride groom on his part might also perform Klushmanda Mantra Homa. In the event of the occurrence of menses of the Vadhu during the course of the Vivaha, then she should be given bath at once and a Prayaschitta Homa be performed by chanting Unjaana Taittireeya Mantras. Graha Bala to Vadhu-Varaas: Mukhyam Guru Balam Vadhwaa Varasyeshtam Raverbalam/ (Guru Bala is significant to the Bride and Ravi Bala is essential to the Bride Groom. The Second, Five, Seven and Eleven Places of the Lagna is propitious to the Kanya. The third , sixth and tenth Places from Lagna are of medium value provided Guru is appeased by way of Shanti; but the fourth, eighth and twelfth positions of Guru would be negative. However the fourth Place is passable subject to Puja-Homas which should be doubled in the Twelfth Placement and be twice intensified in the Eighth Position from Guru. As far as the Bridegroom is concerened in his Birth Chart, the third, sixh and eleventh Sthaanaas are good from the stand point of Surya. In other cases Graha Makha Puja would yield good results. As per Dharma Sindhu, Janmato garbhato vaa panchama varsha prabhtuti Ashtama varsha paryantam Kanyaa Vivaahey Uchitah Kaalah, Shadvarshottharam Varsha dwayam Prashastarah/ Shadvarga madhyenodwaahyaa Kanyaa varsha dwayam yatah, Soma Bhuktey tadastwadwadgandharvasha tatonala/ Navamadashyaamyor madhyamah, Ekashvarshadhamah, Dwaadashaadou Praayaschittaavah/ (Vivaha Yogyata to a girl commences from fifth to eighth year of her birth but it is stated that the Gandharvas and Soma control the girl child for two years each from the sixth to eighth. The time of her ninth to tenth years is stated to be of medium value and her Mada Kaala is in her eleventh year. From her twelfth year onward, there has to be Prayaschitta. [ In India however Sharda Act legally prohibits Balya Vivaha till the Kanya’s attainment of eighteenth year!] Vivaaha Bhedaas: There are eight types of Vivahas: Brahma-Daiva-Aarsha-Praajapatya-Asura-Gandhrava-Rakshasa and Paischacha. ‘Yogya Vadhu Vara Vivaha’ or a decent arranged marriage is of the Braahmika type. Daiva Vivaha is defined as selection for wedding of a Ritwija in the course of Yagna. Accepting at least a cow by way of Kanya dana is that of an Arsha Vivaha.; since this is expected for Kumari Puja it might not be construed as ‘Kanya Vikraya’ or dowry. Praajaapatya Vivaha emphasizes that the Vadhu would live with the husband through the stages of Grihasthya and Vanaprastha and the husband should not take to Sanyasa. Aasura Vivaha is to extract all possible money from the Kanya’s family. When both the Vadhu and Vara get married with mutual consent, irrespective of all other considerations is called Gandharva Vivaha. ‘Balatkara Vivaha’ in battles or by coercion otherwise is Rakshasa Vivaha and marriage by sheer force is the worst viz. of Paisachika Vivaha condemnable as rape. In case a bride groom makes the commitment of wedding and does not turn up with satisfactory response for six months, the proposal of wedding may be taken as invalid. If Kanya Shulka is accepted by the male then the Vadhu might wait for at least a year. In the case of forced weddings and subsequent abandonment or due to consideration of Sagotratwa or napumsatwa, remarrriage might be approved; contrarily if the male partner was tricked into wedding due the bride’s congenital diseases, or bad character, or of barrenness, the bride’s parents should be penalised by the Law of the Land. Those Brahmanas who take part in Asura-Gandharva Vivahas would have to undergo Prayaschitthas of Eka Dina or Tridina Upavasaas respectively. But such Brahmanas who were parties to Rakshasa Paisachika Vivahas ought to observe Chandrayana Prayaschitta. Parivetta Prayaschitta: In case, the younger brother weds before the elder, then the younger is called ‘Parivetta’, while the elder is called ‘Parivitti’. Similarly, if the younger Kanya marries earlier to the elder, then the younger is called ‘Agredishu’ and the earlier is known as ‘Didhishu’. The Prayaschitta for such weddings demand that the both the sons should observe two Krucchra Vrataas each to absolve themselves of the trangressions, while the cocerned Kanyas observe one Krucchra each. In both the cases, the concerned fathers of the kanyas too should perform one Krucchra Vrata each but the Purohitas must undergo Chandraayana Vidhi. Exceptions to Parivetta: In the event of the elder brother being a step son or adopted son, or an invalid, napumsaka, hard of hearing or blind, or a Desha Sanchaari, Veshyaasakta, Deergha Rogi, Jaatibhrashta, Ati Vriddha, a thief or vagabond, then there is no need for the afore-mentioned prayaschitthas; the same is applicable to Agridishus or those who are the younger sisters who married earlier for similar reasons. Kanyaa Daatru Nirnaya: The elders who are eligible to perform Kanyaadaana are her father, grand father, elder brother (Upanayana Yuta) or paternal uncle from father’s side or maternal grand father, maternal uncle and such close relatives could accomplish the Auspicious Task. If needed, mother too could perform. In an extreme case, the Vadhu could make a selection herself. The Pradhana Sankalpa in such cases could be done by the mother or the Kanya herself. Naandi Shraaddha has to be done by the same person doing the Pradhana sankalpa, but the mother of the Vadhu or herself should not; if need be the bridegroom’s thread-married brother could do it. If it is a Dwitteya vivaha, then the bridegroom himself perform Naandi Shraaddha. Vivahaas of Vadhus born in hesitant Nakshatras: There are brides born in commonly apprehended Stars like Moola, Asresha and Jyeshtha; clarifications are as under: Brides born the the first three Charanaas of Moola are stated to terminate the bridegroom’s father; Asresha’s dwiteeya-triteeya charana’s are dangerous to the mother -in-law of the Vadhu. Jyeshtha’s last Charana is risky to the life of the bride’s elder brothers, brother-in-law of the Vara or her sister’s husband. Makha Nakshatra’s Prathama Paada is avoidable as some opine. It isalso stated that a bride having the name of a Nakshatra, tree, river, low class woman, mountain, bird, serpent or fear-sounding or of a dashi be avoided. It is asserted : yasyaapsu plavatey beejam hraadi mutramcha phenilam/ (In respect of the would be bride groom, his ‘Pumstwa Pariksha’ must be done prior the wedding; ie his semen must float in water and his urine must get froth and make sound. Similarly the bride’s senven features be examined viz. Kulamcha Shhelamcha Vapurvayascha Vidyaamcha Vittamcha Sanaadhataamcha, Yetaangunaan sapta prareekshya deyaa Kanyaa bhudhai ssesha machintaneeyam/ ( The bride’s seven-folded characteristics viz. Kula-Swabhava-Shareera-Vayas or age-Vidya-Dhana-Samrakshaka need to be examined. Vadhu Janma Maasa Nirnaya: The Janma-Maasa of the bride may also be assessed; Maagha, Pahalguna, Vaishakha and Jyeshtha are considered excellent; Margasirsha is of medium value. Ashadha and Kartikas are passable.If Surya is in Mithuna in Ashadha or if Surya is in Vrischika in Kartika, Deshachara might accept but not always.The same is stated to be of the same if Makastha Surya in Pousha maasa or Meshastha Ravi in Chitra maasa. If both the Vadhu Varas were born in Jyeshtha, wedding in Jyeshta Maasa is not in order. But ‘dwi-jeshtatwa’ on other Maasaas is of medium value. If only one is of Jyeshthatwa, Jyeshtha maasa is auspicious. Graha bala in Lagna: While in respect of Aasura Vivaha or weddings against dowry settlement which are of Adharma nature, Dharma Sindhu states that any time would be good enough : Saarva kaalamekey Vivaham! However, Mayukha Grandha states that when Surya in the ten Nakshatras after Arudra, the ruling of Vasishtha was that Vivaha-Upanayanaas be forbidden, although that view was not referred to either in Kousubha Grandha, Nirnaya Sindhu nor in the Martaandaadi Jyotisha Grandhaas and as such many Sishta Panditas do not support the view as quoted from Vasishtha. But most certainly, Vivaahas are prohibited on Amavasyas. Ashtami and Shasthi in Bahula Paksha are of ‘Alpa Phala’or minimal value though others are in order. Shukla Paksha Tithis are auspicious. Krishna Trayodashi is medium. Rohini, Mriga sirsha, and Magha are excellent and Uttara, Hasta, Swaati, Moola, Anuradha and Revati are appreciated by one and all. In Haradatta Mata or line of thinking, Chitra, Shravana, Dhanishtha and Aswini are considered superior, alhough if these are with Dushta Grahas they are rejected. Vadhu -Varas both require clearance from the view point of Tara Bala and Chandra Bala. If one of the couples does not enjoy Chandra Bala, then that can be rectified by Rajataadi (silver etc.) Daanaas. Meshah Kanyaa ghatassimho nakram yugmam Dhanuvrishayah, Meenasimho Dhanuh Kumbho jaadeenaamghaata Chandramaah/ ( Normally, Chandra destroys Mesha and other Rashis since the destruction occurs in Mesha, Kanya, Kumbha, Simha, Makara, Mithuna, Dhanu, Vrisha, Meena, Simha, Dhanu and Kumbha; Mesha Raashi persons are affected in Mesha, Vrisha Raashi persons are affected by Kanya and Mithuna raashi persons are affected by Kumbha and so on. The Ghaata Chandra or the destructive planet of Moon is forbidden in travels and battles. But the consideration of Ghaata Chandrama is not taken into account in the context of Choula Karma, Upanayana, Yagnas, Seemanta, Jatakarama and finally in Vivahaas. But, in the case of Mrityu Yogas, the Purvaa bhaaga of Parigha, Bhadra, Vyatipata, Vaidhruti, Tithi Vriddha Kshaya yoga, Gandanta, Surya Sankranti, Dhumakethu paata, Bhukampa, and such inaupicious occasions Vivahas are certainly prohibited.
Now in regard to Graha Bala in Lagna, Surya is beneficent in the third, sixth and eighth in the lagna. Chandra is benevolent in third, fourth and second; Angaraka is in third and sixth; but Budha and Brihaspatis are not benevolent in all places except twelfth and eighth. Shukra is generous in the second, fiftth, ninth, and tenth.Shani is good in sixth, third and eighth.Rahu and Ketu are good in ther eleventh position of Lagna. However, in case Surya is in Lagna; Chandra in Prathama, Shasth-ashtaka ,Angaraka in tenth; Budha and Guru in eighth; Shukra in third, eighth or six; Lagna in Sahani, Rahu-Ketu ; Lagnadhipati in sixth and eighth places; and if there is any Graha in Saptami then those positions are avoidable for the Vivaha. Also in Eka Vimshati Maha Doshas are avoidable in the fianalisation of Vivaha Muhurtas. ie in the context of Dushtra Tithi Vara Nakshatra Yoga Karanaas: If Mangala Graha is in the Ashtama Sthaana, Chandra is in sixth or eighth Position to Lagna, Shukra is in Shashtha, or Surya is on the Sankranti day, or in Lagna Khandanta- Tithi khandanta, and Nakshatra khandaanta, or if Nakshatra is inauspicious, and so do the Vaara-Kulika-Ardrayamaadi Doshas; Vaidhhruti-Vyatipata Chandra or Surya’s kranti saamya; Janma Rashi or Janma Lagna’s Ashtama Lagna; or exreme influence of Shasthanga in Papa Graha; if , Papa grahas are in seventh position Lagna; if Chandra or Lagna are in the Papa Graha’s second or twelfth position; if Vishkambha-Atiganda, Vyaghata , Vajra, Vyatipata, Parigha, Vaidhruti Shula, Ganda or such Duryogaas are in that daily Nakshatra, then such situations are better left out. Also, in case when Chandra-Tara Phalas etc. are not conducive then again, Vivahas are not agreeable. In such cases of deficiencies of Chandra-Tara Balas, daanaas are required to be performed: If Chandra is weak then shankha daana; for the shortage of Tara Bala, Lavyana Daana; for Tithi tandula daana; for the insufficiencies of Karana-Vaaras Dhanya daana, for weak Yoga then Suvarna daana are prescribed. Mandapa Nirmana Vichara: Among the components of Vivaha Prakarana, Mandapa Nirmana is required to be taken into account as per Shubha Tithi-Vaara-Nakshatras. Preparatory arrangements like the various inputs meant for Vivaha including acquisition of food raw materials, pounding for flour etc.; for Mandapa nirmana, Agni Vedika etc as also shopping for wedding and so on should be intiated as per auspicious days and time. Prior to the Muhurta day, the third, sixth, ninth days are negative for the actual preparations. The Vivaha Vedika or a raised platform in the Vivaha hall should have the four sided openings measuring twelve or ten or eight hastas or standard measures of a hand and towards the east of the Platform square type of inner vedika square to facilitate the seating of the Vadhuvaras and Vivaha Kartas and that inner Vedika should have four hand measures of Vadhu or five hand measures of the Vara as also mini-steps decorated with plantain trees in the four corners laced with mango leaf strings all around. Kanya Janma Graha Suchaka Vaidhavya Parihara Dana: Vishnu Pratima Daana is the complete negation of any indication of the Kanya’s widow-hood in her married life ahead after formal Shodashopachara Puja to the Pratima with four hands and Five Ayudhas followed by the Sannkalpa: Yanmayaa praanchi janushaghnaantyaapati samaagam, Vishopavishashastraardyairhato vaapiviraktiya praamyamaanam Maha ghoram Yashasoukhya Dhanapaham/ Vaidhavyaadya dukhougham tannaashaya Sukhaaptaye, Bahu Sowbhagya Vriddhyaicha Maha Vishnorimaanatanum, Souvarneem nirmitaam shaktyaa tubhyam sampradadey Dwija/ ( I am hereby offering this Vishnu Pratima daana to absolve all the sins committed by me in my previous births by way of hatred for my husbands and killed them by administering them poison or adverse medicines with full knowledge or by using weapons with the submission to pardon me and empower me to secure name-prosperity and happiness and most importantly to ensure that in the forthcoming Vivakika Jeevana to safe guard my Mangalya or my would be husband’s lealth and longevity.) After following the Pratima Daana and Brahmana Bhojana, the Vadhu’s parents perform Kumbha Vivaha by offering a Kumbha on top of which Varuna Deva Pratima and Vishnu Deva Pratima in Daana for the same puropse of destroy all doubts of Vaidhavya.Similarly Mrita Bharyaatwa Nirupanopaya is ensured by the prospective husband especially when he lost his earlier wife or wives by observing Praajaapatya Kruccha Vrata and three Chandrayana Vratas besides performing Charyajya homaas reciting Durga Mantra of Jaatavedasey etc and Vishnu Mantras followed by Dasha Brahmana Bhojana or carrying out a Brahmana Vivaha. Mrita putratwa dosha parihara:This dosha is overcome by Brahmana Vivaya, Hari Vamsha Shravana, Maha Rudra Japa followed by one thenth of ghritaajya durva homa as prescribed in Hari Vamsha Grandha . Kanya Griha Bhojana Nishedha: ‘Kanya pratigraheeta’ or the son-in-law is to be considered as Vishnu himself and that is why the Kanya daatas or the parents of the bride are forbidden to eat in the house of the Parents- in- law till the arrival of a child to the Vadhu Varaas: Vishnum jaamaataram matwaatasyakopam na kaarayet, Aprajaayaam tu Kanyaayaam naashniyaattasya vai grihey/ Iti Kanya grihey Pitrorbhojana nishedhah/ Vagdaana Vichara: Before the wedding, the bridegroom’s father and family visit the bride’s house on an auspicious day to facilitate the bride and join the Party of the bride to perform Ganesha Puja and Varuna Puja. The boy’s father would make the Sankalpa on this occasion : Karishya maana Kanyaadaanaanga bhutam vagdaamam karishye, Tadangatvena Ganapati Pujanam Varuna Pujanam cha karishye/
Vivaha Sankalpa: The tradition has been that on the day of Vivaha or a day prior to it, the Vadhu Varas are given a Mangala Snaana in their respective houses by applying fragrant oil and Haridra on their heads and bodies; similarly the concerned parents too have the Mangala Snaanas and along with the bridegroom or bride as the case may be are seated together. The parents of the Groom make the following Sankalpa: Mamaasya Putrasya Daiva Pitra Runaapaakarana hetu Dharma Prajotpaadana Siddhi dwaara Shri Parameshwara preetyartham Vivaahaakhyam samskaara karma karishye/ Tathangatwena Swasti Vaachanam Maatrukaa pujanam Naandishraadham Nandinyaadi Mandapa Devataa sthaapanamcha karishye tatraadou nirvighnataa siddhyartham Ganapati pujanam karishye/ (In order to accomplish the blessings of Parameshwara by way of promoting ‘Dharma-Prajotpaadana’ and the Daiva-Pitru indebtedness of my Vamsha, I resolve to accomplish the Vivaha Samskaara of our son and as the components of the same will perform Swasti Vachana, Maatrukaa Pujana, Naandi Shraadha, Nandiniyadi Mandapa Devataa Sthaapana, and much before all these the Nirvighnata Puja of Shri Ganesha Deva). In respect of the Kanyaa Vivaha, the parents of the Kanya would make the Sankalpa: Mamasya Kanyaah Jaata Karma Nama Karma Suryaavalokana nishkramanopavesha—naanna prashana choula samskaaraanaam buddhi purvaka lopa janya praatyava parihaaraartham prati samskaaramartham krucchram tatpratyaamnaaya Go nishkrayee bhuta yathaa shakti rajata daaneynaahamacharishye/ (Since I failed to perform either inadvertently or otherwise the series of Samskaraas to this Kanya of mine like Jatakarma, Naama Karma, Suryavalokana, Nishkramana, Upaveshana, Anna Praashana, Choula Karma etc. considerable sum of sins was collected against me and as such am now prepared to prayaschittas like Artha Kruccha, full Kruccha, or in place there of am prepared to offer Daanas of Silver as per my capacity. In case the brother of the Kanya, or other near relations perfom the Sankalpa, suitable amendments be made; in extreme cases, the Vadhu Varas themselves could take the lead too in making the Sankalpa with appropriate amendments. There is a tradition of not performing the Pradhana Sankalpa or the Main Resolve to be done by the Kanyaa Daana Karta along with Swasti Vaachana before the Vivaha as they believe that this occasion is as good as and an initial part of the Vivaha; where as a large Section of persons think otherwise. In any case following Matrika Pujana, the bridegroom’s father or who soever is the chief Representative of the Vara has to perform the Naandi Shraaddha addressed to Pitrus with ‘Parana traya’ as the offering depending on whoever is alive. For instance if Matamaha or Matuh Pitamaha are alive or Pitamaha Prapitamaha are alive the Naandi mukha Uccharanas would vary suitably.From the bride’s side Garbhadharana Prakarana needs to be performed before Mandapa Devataa Shtapaana, Graha Yagna, Swasti Vachana or after Nandi Shradda; the Kanya Daata has to visit the bridegroom’s house and make the Sankalpa : Karishyamaana Vivaahaangatwena Varasya Seemaanta Pujaam karishye/ and after Ganesha puja, the father-in-law has to perform ‘Paada prakshaalana’ of the groom and facilitate him with Vastra-Pushpa Gandha-Dhupa-Nirajana and ‘Dugdha Prashana’ or offering him milk. Then the Groom is escorted by aVahana amid Mangala Vaadyas and taken to the Vadhu Griha. The bride’s father has to be decorated by his counter part with ‘Vastraalankaaras’ with due respects. He would then join the Puja of Arthanaareeshwara, Katyayani Devi, Maha Lakshmi and Shachi Devi Pratimas paced on a pre arranged Platform with Kalasha’s placed on a Square Vastra all around and then initiate the Gauri Hara Puja to Shiva Parvati Pratimas in a ‘Parasparaalingana’form or of mutually-embracing pose; the Prayer to Gauri Haras states: Gouri Hara Maheshaana Sarva Mangala Daayakaa, Pujaam gruhena Devesha Sarvadaa Mangalam kuru/ A Deepa with the length of threads measuring the height of the Kanya be lit and offered to Gauri Haras and ‘shodashopachaaraas’ executed whereafter Suvasini Puja and Brahmana Bhojanaas be followed. Snaatakam: Grihaagatam Snaatakam Varam Madhuparkenaarhayishye/ ( As the Snaataka Vara and his Party have arrived at the bride’s house, Madhuparka be offered). Curd and Honey are called Madhuparka; milk and honey or even Gudodaka /Jaggery water could be the alternatives. The Hindu tradition is that as and when the Guru or Elders, or King visits one’s house, he is received with madhuparka as a sign of respect and veneration. In a yagna also, Rutvijas are venerated with Madhuparkas. On the arrrival of the bridegroom’s party, the bride’s father offers Gandha-Pushpas and light refreshments or Bhakshya Bhojana and till that time has to observe Upavasa and thereafter till the Vivaka Prakriya ie till the offer of the Kanya again he should be on empty stomach. Lagna Ghati Yantra Sthaapana: A Ghati Yantra be got ready by Brahmanas as per prescribed specifications and kept in a copper or Earthen vessel full of water either at half Sun Rise or half-Sun Fall in between any of the sub- Directions viz. Agneya-Nairruti etc or in the main Directions of North-South etc. This Ghati Yantra is a ‘Kaala- Sadhana Karana’. After setting the Yantra, Ganesha-Varuna Puja be performed. Abhimukha-Vara Vadhu : As the Shubha Kaala is decided by the Jyotirvettaas, the Vadhu is seated looking east and the Vara is seated facing west with a new cloth curtain smeared with Sindhuri or Kunkuma decorated by Swastika Emblem in between; there would be two heaps of rice before their seats from a comfortable distance of which they could pick the grains. Both the Vadhu-Varas who are provided with the rice filling up either’s two palmfuls get ready meditating their Kula Devatas with the recitation of the Mantra : Aamuka Devataayai namah and the Jyotirvetta would recite Mangala -ashtaka Shlokaas till the Shubha Lagna arrives when the curtain in between is removed towards the northern direction with the Mantra stating Sumuhurtestu Pratishtha . Just at that moment, the Vadhu and Vara exchange glances of each other and are made to deposit the rice already placed in their both palms on their respective heads: this major act on the Vivaha is called ‘ Paraspara -akshtaa shiro dhaarana’. The Vara then would place ‘Darbhaagraas’ or the tops of the Darbhas in between the eyebrows of the Vadhu with Om Bhurbhuvasswah and leave away the darbha after wetting it with water. This would be followed by Veda Pathana led by Veda Vettas and at each break of the Mantra Khanda, Brahmanaas sprinkle Akshatas on the heads of the Vadhu Varaas.
Kanyaa Daana Prakriya: The Jyotirvetta would rearrange the seating arrangement as a preliminary to the key act of Kanyaadaana; the groom would face east and the bride would face west while the Kanya daata and his wife would be seated on the southern side and having taken ‘Kushaas ‘in hand accomplish the act of Kanya daana as follows : [Mamopaatta duritakshaya dwaraa Parameshwara preetyartham shubhey shobhaney muhurtey Shri Vishnoraagnayaa Adya Brahmanah Dwiteeya ParaardheyVaivaswata Manvantarey Kali yugey pradhamey paadey Jambu dwipey Bharata VarsheyBharata Khandey Meror dakshina digbhaagey Aryaavartey or Shri Shailasya Ishanya orVayavya or Agneya pradeshey etc. Samastha Devataa Brahmana Guru jana sannidhou Asmin Vartamaana Vyavahaarika Chaandra maanena or Surya maanena --- Samvatsarey, --Ayanye—Rutou,--- Maasou,--Pakshou—Shubha Tithou—Shubha Vaasarey—Shubha Nakshatra---Shubha yoga-Shubha Karana Evam guna visheshana visishtaayaam] Amuka Pravaraamuka Gotromuka Sharmaaham Mama Samasta Pitrunaam Niratishayaananda Brahma lokaavaaptyaadi Kanyaa daana kalpokta phalaavaaptaye Anena Varenaasyaam Kanyaamutpaada ishyamaana santatyaa Dwadashaa Varaan Dwadasha paraamscha Purushaan Pavitrikartum Atmanascha Lakshmi Narayana preetaye Braahma Vivaaha vidhinaa Kanyaa daanmam karishye! ( After announcing the details of the Desha kaala details on the lines of [----] above, the ‘Kanya Daana Karta’ would recite the following : I, of Amuka Pravara Aamuka Gotra Amuka Sharma, am performing this Kanya Dana so that this auspicious act would facilitate the Phala prapti to let my Pitru Devaas to attain lasting happiness and Brahma loka Nivasa as also to pave way for the prospective generations out of the union of these Vadhu-Varaas to sanctify me and my wife as also twelve brides and twelve grooms in future besides pleasing Bhagavan Shri Lakshmi- Narayana !) The Kanya Daata would then leave the Sankalpa-Kushaakshatas on the ground with water and stands up and hands over the Kanya to the Vara stating: Kanyaam kanaka sa sapannam Kanakaabharanairyutaam, Daasyaami Vishnavey tubhyam Brahmaloka jigeeshayaa/ Vishwabharam Sarva Bhutah Saakshinyah Sarva Devataah, Imaam Kanyaam pradaashyaami Pitrunaam Taaranaa- ya cha/ ( I am now handing over this perfect Kanya of mine who is duly ornamented with golden jewellery and Sadgunas to the Vara who is of Vishnu Swarupa with the objective of attaining Brahma Loka after my life-term. This memorable and auspicious action of mine is evidenced by the Whole Universe, Sarva Bhutas, Sarva devataas and is being performed to liberate my Pitru Devataas.). Having stated thus, he keeps filling up the Vadhu’s folded palms with Shuddhodaka or pure water through a golden ornament even as his wife standing to his right side enables him to do so and theVadhu in turn pours the water uninerruptedly into the folded palms of the Vara as the free flow of the water falls in a ‘copper’ plate kept underneath. The Kanya Daata then states: Kanyaa taarayatu punyam vardhayantu Shaantih Pushtistushthischaastu punyaaham bhavanto bruvantu/ and the Vaak chatushtaya or the Four Statements.
Principal Kanyaa daana Statement:Aamuka pravaropetaamuka gotromuka Sharmaaham mama Samasta duritakshaya dwaaraa----[as in the Kanyaa daana prakriya above] and Amuka pravaropetaamuka gotraaya Amuka Sharmanah Parpoutraayaamuka Sharmana, Poutraayaamuka Sharmanah putraayaamuka Sharmaney Shridhara rupiney varaaya, Amuka Pravaraamuka -gotrasyaamuka Sharmanah Prapoutreem Amika Sharmanah Poutreem Amuka Sharmano mama Putreem Amuka naamneem Shri Rupineem Prajapai Devatyaam prajotpaadanaartham tubhyamaham sampradadey/ Following the long recital of the above Moolokta Sankalpa, the Kanya Daata leaves the ‘Shoddhodakaakshatas’ by his ‘Suvarnayukta hasta’ into the palms of the Vara; he further states: Prajaapatih preeyataam Kanyaam Pratigruhanatu Bhavaan/ three times. The Vara would say Om Swasti and touches the right palm of the Kanya and states thrice: Idam Kasmaa Adaat—Prithivi pratigruhnaat, Dharma Prajaa Siddhyartham Gruhnaat/ The Kanyaa Daata then bids farewell to the Vadhu and states: Gourim Kanyaamimaam Vipra Yadhaa Shakti Vibhushitam, Gotraaya Sharmaney tubhyam dattaam Vipra samaashraya/ Kanye mamaagrato bhuyaah Kanye meyDivi Paarshvyayoh, Kanyey mey Pushthito Bhuyaastwadaanaanmoksha maapunuyaam/ Mama Vamshakuley jaataa Paalitaa Vatsaraashtakam, Tubhyam Vipra mayaa dattaa utra poutra pravardhini/ Dharmeycha-arthecha kaameycha naati charitavyaa twayeyam/ ( This Kanya who was born to us in our Vamsha and brought up for eight years by us is being provided as Kanya daana. On Kanyaka! Do save us from all our sides by way of bringing good reputation to us and ensure our Salvation as also by way of your prospering with children and grand children; never ever cross the limits of Dharma-Artha- Kaama). The Vara then confirms too: Naati charaami/ or I too never ever transgress the limits, as implicitly agrees and accepts the gift with the pronounciation of Om Swasti/ The Daata would be then seated again and gifts away : Kanyaadaana pratishthaa siddhyardham idam Suvarnam sampradadey/ Then the Vara nods his head and accepts the gifts with Om Swasti!
18 AHNIKAACHARA PRAKARANA
Snaanaantara Vastra dharana: After removing the wet cloth with which the Snaanaas are done, a dry
and white Vastra and Uttareeya are worn. Do not carry the left over wet vastra on one’s shoulders but his dress code is stateted to be incomplete without ‘Uttareeya’ and Underwear and no Brahmana could perform Shrouta and Smarta Karmas without these.
Om Tat Sat
(My humble salutations to the lotus feet of Sri Chandrasekharendra Saraswathi Mahaswamy ji and also my humble greatulness to Brahmasree Sreeman V D N Rao ji Philosophic Scholar for the collection)