Essence Of Dharma Sindhu -7

Essence Of
Dharma Sindhu  


16       Homa Prakriyas 

Performing Nitya Auoposana  Homa by one- self  is far better than by proxies as that tends to reduce the fruit by half. However the proxy could be one’s wife, son, daughter, brother, brother-in-law, son-in-law, any other relative or by Ritviks; but what is important is to perform the homa. On ‘Parva dinas’ or festivals and the auspicious days, this is better performed by the self. Well before the Suryodaya or Suryasta, Agni or Gruhaani is readied and the Agni Karya is intiated after the Sun Rise or Sun Set. At the ‘Agni Prajjvalana’ or when the Agni is at full bloom till its end, the Homa is executed with the recitation of ‘Om Bhurbhuva Swaha’ by way of continuous ‘Ghritaahutis’.The Aahutis are offered during the ten ghadiyas after Sun Rise  ie till the ninth ghadi before the Sun Set and any extension thereafter should be done after Prayaschitta by way of four additional Ahutis with the Mantra Doshaavastarnamah Swaaha and Samskara (Purification) of Homa saamagri. After the Shrouta Homa, Smaarta Home be performed too.  Some persons perform Smarta Homa earlier. In the context of Aadhaana and Punadaadhaana, Homaarambhas are always performed in the Saayankaalas only. The homaas in the morning and the evening are to be done only by the same Homa Dravyaas. However, the Kartha might not be the same.

Ashvalaayana Smaarta Homa Prayoga: After Aachamana and Pranayama, there should be a Sankalpa: Shri Parameshwara preetyartham Saaya –moupaasana homam / Praataroupasana homam vaamuka dravyena karishye/  Reciting Chatvaari Shringaa Mantra as Dhyaana, the Karta would sprinkle water thrice all around with his hand, touch the darbhas that are spread over, lift the north placed darbha, light the Samidhas and Homa dravyaas with its pratibimba or reflection of the lit darbha and pray to Prajapati with the Ruk viz. Vishwaani na, place the Samidha in Agni and offer hundred rice grains to Agni saying Suryaaya swaaha as the Prathamaahuti. On mentally announcing that the offer of more than hundred rice grains be made, the Dwiteeyahuti is made to Prajapati with the invocation Prajaapataye namaha/ Then ‘Agnyopasthaana’ is made without Paristraana ( counting the number of Kushas) but with Parisamuhana ( Sprinkling water around the Sacrificial Fire) and Paryukshana ( directing the right hand of the Karta from one direction to another direction, spreading darbhas and  initiating the worship service). Agna Aayumsheeti tisrunaam Shatam Vaikhaanasaa Agnih Pavamaano Gayatri Agnyupastaaney viniyogah/ Agneytwanna iti cha tisruu-naam Goupaayano Loupaayano vaa Bandhuh Subandhuh shruta Bandhurvipabandhu schaagnir –vipadaa viraat Agnupasthaaney viniyogah/ ( The Upasthaana of Agni is performed by reciting the three Ruchaas of Agna yaamyushi Mantra whose Rishi is Shanta Vaikhaanasa, Agni is Pavamaana Devata, Chhhanda is Gayatri; the four Ruchaas of Agney Twanna Mantra whose Rishis are Goupaayana or Loupaayana and Bandhu-Subandhu-Shruta bandhu and Vipra bandhu Rishis, Agni as Devata and  Chhanda as Dwipada Virat; Prajaapatey Hiranya Garbhah Mantra whose Rishi is Hiranyagarbha, Devata is Prajapati, Trishthup as Chhanda;  Tantum Tanvandeva Mantra whose Devataa is Agni, and Jagati as Chhanda; and Hiranya garbho Hiranya Garbhah whose Rishi is Hiranyaarbha, Devata is Prajapati, Chhanda is Trishthup; thus all these Mantras are in Viniyoga for the Upasthana. These Mantras are to be recited standing in Vaayavya  Disha. After the Upasthana, the Karta is to be seated and would recite Maanastoka etc. Mantraas while applying ‘Vibhudi’ on the forehead and the body finally praying to Vishnu and stating Anena homa Karmana Shri Parame -shwara preeyataam ( May Parameswara be pleased by this Homa.).  In the morning,  there would be the Viniyoga of  Suryopa -sthaana with three Praajaapatyaas viz. Suryono divassuryaschakshuh Suryo Gayatri Suryopa sthaaney viniyogah; Udutyam Kanvah Praskanvaha Suryo Gayatri Suryopasthaaney;  and Chitram Devaanaa -mangirasah Kutsa Suryastripshut Suropasthaaney viniyogah/ (For the Suryono Mantra the Rishi is Sourashya Chakshu, Surya is Devata, and Gayatri is Chhanda; the Udyukatm etc. Mantra has Kanva-Praskanva as Rishis, Surya is Dvata and Gayatri is Chhanda; Chitram Devaanaam Mantra has Angirasa-Kutsa as Rishis, Surya as Devata and Jagati as Chhanda; and  to Namo Mitrasya Mantra the Rishi is Soumyobhitapa, Surya is Devata and Jagati as Chhanda; in all these cases, Suryopasthaana is Viniyoga. Some Vidwaans however believe in the reciting of Tantumtanvan in the Suryopasthaana in the morning. It may however be cautioned that when the Homa Prayoga is done by the Kartha’s wife or daughter, there should not be the Viniyoga of the Dhyaanopasthaana Mantras.

Hiranyakeshiya Homa Prayoga: The Hiranya Keshiyaas propose the Sankalpa seeking the willingness and Satisfaction of Parameshwara and initiate the Homa to perform ‘Parisamuhana’and ‘Paryukshana’with the Mantra Yathaaha tadvasava/  from Dakshina (South) to Purva (East); the first mention of the Mantra is Aditenumanyusva from Dakshina to Purv; then Anumatenu manuswa from Paschima to Uttara; the third Paryukshana is Sarasvatenu manyuswa from Uttara upto Purva and finally the fourth Paryuksana in all directions from North to North with the Mantra: Devasavitah prasuva. Then quietly take the samidhaas on hand and perform ‘parishena’ in all thedirections and into the Homa kunda. Then recite: Aditenvamaggasthaah Anumtenvamaggastaah Saraswaten -maggahthaah Deva Savitah praasaavih and perform prokshana or sprinkling water in all the directions circularly.  Udyutyam and Chitram Devaanaam etc.Mantras are used for Prahahkaala Upasthaana while Agnirmurdhaa Diva and Vaangmaney Pushkataadadhi Mantras are utilised in the Saayamkaala’s Upasthaama.Aapastamba Vidhana Homa: In the evening, the Aapastamba Sutris make two Aahutis , one by the Mantra Aganaye swaaha and Agnaye swishtakrutey swaha/  In the morning their Aahutis are made with the Mantras Suryaya swaha  and Agnayey swishrakrutey swaaha.  That is all the difference and the rest would be as in the case of Hiranya keshi vidhana.

Katyaayana Homa Prakaara: To Katyaayanaas the Saayam Kaala Homa at Suryastama is the one which was done at the Pratah Kaala Homa before Suryodaya.  From the Pratahkaala’s Upaasthana till Sandhya Karma and Gayatri Japa is carried out in this. Then Sankalpa is made as earlier and after picking up darbhas from the deposit,  transfer three darbhas from the left to the right hand and offer them to Agni, take water to perform prokshana with Akshataas around the Homa Sthaana and recite the Swaaha Mantra viz. Agnaye swaha Prajapatayey Swaaha / The Homa is done with curd or rice grains. In the morning the Homa is performed with the Mantra: Suryaaya swaahaa, Prajapataye swaha.  The Upasthaana in the evening is done with Samastwaaya and in the morning with Vibhraat. In case there is any shortcoming in the Homa then the Prayaschitta is the recitals of Ashtottara / Sahasra Gayatri Japa.

Homa Dravyaas and Homa Lopa Prayaschitta:   The normally utilised material in the HomaKaryas include Dhanya,Yavaas, rice and wheat in raw form, tilaas, milk, curd, and ghee .The materials for ‘Uttaraahutis’ are to be larger in quantity than in the Purnaahutis. Samidhaas include Arka, Palaasha, Apamarga, Peepul, Gular, Shami, Durva, Darbha, Bel, Vata etc. all with skins and of he length of ten to twelve inches long. If Homa and Aahutis are performed together, then the Mantra Yatra vetta vanaspatey be recited. If Nitya Homa suffers from a break, then ‘Aajya Samskaarana’ be resorted to and offered to Agni four times ie Ekam,  Dwi, Trini and Chatvaari while reciting Manojyotirjusha taam/  In the event of Nitya ‘Homaatikramana’ or ‘Homa Lopa’( default or deficiency in the Homa)  then the Ghee’s samskara or purification  is done and after filling the ghee with the ladle  byfour times and homa is performed with the Mantra Manojjyoti turshataam/ If twelve days continuously there occurs a Homa Lopa and there should be a Praayaschitta by doing Samskaara or purification of Homa dravyaas and additional Aahutis twice over in  double count. Besides this, there should  be Upasthaana of Agni, Surya and Prajapati without Homa so that the memory of that prayaschittha should sink in the Karta’s inner self. When there is Ashoucha or any such unavoidable situations, then also similar praayaschittaas need to be observed. While this is the manner in which Hiranyakeshis observe, Aapastamba Sutris obereve Prayaschittha for three days. As Agni naashana occurs for more than twelve days, the Kartha himself has to perform the Homa but not by proxies.  When Agni is sought to be revived by the Self himself called ‘Atmaaropana’ then after three days again then there should be repeat ‘Aadhaana’ of Agni to ensure that there should not be ‘Avaropana’ again.  

Saayam Pratah Homa’s dispensation: In case both the Saayam-Pratah Kaala homas are done together, then there should be a Sankalpa to say Saayampraatarhomousamasya karishye and at the Homanta  ‘prokshana’ or sprinkling water in a cirular manner and ‘Samskarana’or purification of the Homa Dravyas are performed. Then the Samidhaas are placed in the Agni,‘Aahutis’ given with Suryaya Prajapataye and after Havishyaanta Upasthana is achieved with the recitation of the Mantra Pancharchascha Vama Devassurya Vaishanarou trishtup/

Paksha Homa: On the Maasa Pratipada Tithi, there would be a Sankalpa: Adya Saayamaasaa- rambhya Chaturdashisaayamavadhikaan Pakshahomaatasrena karishey/ (Commencing from this Pratipada evening till Chaturdashi’s evening, I resolve to observe the Homa on the pattern of  Paksha Homa Tantra). Placing rice in two Patraas or vessels and following the Principle of Vriddhi-Kshaya or Increase-Decrease, fourteen  measures in a day-descending manner of rice is offered to Agni with the Agnaye Swaahaa with the first vessel rice and the second vessel measure addressing Prajapati  in the homaas. In the same manner the second morning homa is done with the Sankalpa:  Adyavidhi Parvapraptara vidhaanakaan Pakshahomaanstatrena karishye/ (That is: I shall perform the morning homa on the Parva days on the format of Paksha homa tantra as was done on the previous evening). If there is any hindrance in the Paksha Homa some time half way through, then the ‘Atikranta’ homas should be done additionally in the third paksha; however if the obstacles are still not surmounted, there would be the risk of having to do the Paksha homaas through out the life.

Samaaropa Vidhi: Agni Samaroha or Creation of Agni is accomplished by  Arani Prakriya ie rubbing wooden pieces and rope by Brahmans in the ‘Nirmanthana’ or wood churning  in highly significant Ceremonies reciting very powerful Mantras. After executing a homa, if Agni is produced by Arani method or with a feeling of the same by reciting the Mantra Ayam tey yoni-whose Rishi is Vishwamitra, Agni is Devata, Anushtup Chhanda- then that process is called Agni Samaaropa. ‘Pratyavaroha’ is the process of placing the Samidhas in  the Agni so created by Arani or the feeling of the same; this procedure of ‘Agnyaadhaana’ or creation of Agni and its Pravaroha-Pratyavaroha along with the recitation of Aajuhwaana and Udbhudhaswa Mantras  is observed for Parwa dinaas or twelve days  of immense significance both in the evening and morning sessions. The Samaaropa and Pratyavaroha are to be executed by the Karta himself and not proxies except by his wife who might perform the Pratyavaroha part. But if  there is any Pravasa or Ashoucha mid- way, then Pratyavaroha might have to be done by  Ritviks since Samidha Sparsha of Agni needs to be maintained during the Twelve day Samaaropa Vidhi. On the return of the Pravasa  or Ashoucha, the Karta has to perform ‘Anugamana Prayaschitta’ to revive the Gruhaagni and  after Sarva Prayaschitta for the full eligibitity.

Punaraadheya Prayaschitta: As the samidhaas of Agni are spent away, the procedure of its revival is known as Punaraadheyana with prayaschitta. After obtaining all the material required, the process starts with the Sankalpa of Gruhyaanyanugamana Prayaschhittam karishye,   Agni Sthaapana and ‘Ghritaahutis’ or Aahutis of Ghee with the recital of Mantras like Ayaascha and then Sarva Praayaschitta homaas. This would be followed by Upavasa of either of the Couple for twelve nights and / or Repetitive Ghrutaahutis for as many days. Some opine that if Agni is put off for three nights, then the Karta should observe hundred Prayayamas; beyond that for twenty nights the Agni is off then one day Upavasa; beyond that upto two months then Upavasa for three nights; and if the ‘Punara -adhaana’ is not done for one year then one Praapatya Kruccha and beyond that one Kruccha Vrata for each year’s loss. Thus the Sarva Prayaschitta is done and Sankalpa made: Nashtasya Gruhyaagneyh Prayaschittam karishye.  In the case of Vivahas and such other needs of Gruhyagni then : Swaagni bhramenaanyaagnou swayam yajeney swagnaavanyaa  yajaney vaa ‘Pathikruta stasyakalipaakam karishye/ (out of an apperehension of creating a Second Agni from out of his own Gruhaagni or otherwise, the Karta creates another Agni to prepare the Sthaalipaka or Charu); he offers the same in Purnaahuti homa with the Mantra : Agnaye Pathikrutey swaha/ In the context of post-Vivahas, or after Adhanaas or conceptions,  Purnimas and so on Sthalipakaas are required to be initiated. In respect of Yaagaas, if Pratipada Tithi is missed, then the following Tithis excepting Chaturthi, Navami, Dwiteeya, Panchami, and Ashtami before the  next Parva’s are suitable for performing Yaagaas. If having done Anvaadhaana or placing ghee etc in Agni on Pratipada Tithi but ‘Ishti’or initiation of Yaaga has not been done then triteeya or such other Tithis would be suited for doing  Sarva Prayaschittha homa and again Punar-Anvadhaana to proceed with the Yaaga Karya. In the following Parva, Atineshti and Pathikrut could be performed then. As there was time barred by not thus doing Yaaga on Pratipada, then ‘Paada kruccha’ be observed.  In the third Praatipada too if the Anvadhana and Ishti were not done, then Ardha kruccha Prayaschitta is possible but in the fourth attempt there would not be further prayaschittha is not possible and there would be Agni Naasha. Thus the only alternative would be Punarodhaana but this type of Punarodhaana is different from Punaradheya in the context of Vivahas demanding far sterner measures. 

Agnyopaghaataas: In the event of forbidden  and loathsome material come into contact with Pavitra Samidhas or Homa Kunda, then that is indicative of ‘Agnyopaghaata’  and the Agni gets sullied and destroyed. In the first category, one has to perform ‘Punadaaradheya’or revival of Agni and in the second type ‘Punaraadhaana’ or ‘Agni Sparsha’. Alrernatively, intense Samidha homa along with by lots of Ghrita is to be resorted to by reciting the Mantra: Punastaadityaa Rudraavasava ssamidhataam Punar Brahmano Vasu neetha yagnaih, Ghruteynatatwantanuvo vardhayasva Satyaassantu Yajamaanasya Kaamaa swaaha/ Aditya Rudra Vasubhya idam namama! (There should be Samidha Homa and Ghrityaahutis addressing Aditya, Rudra, Vasu, and Brahma). Purnahuti is done in such a way that when water is poured on the ferocious Agni it sounds like a hissing flame! Let there be Sarva Prayaschittha as though the main Ahutis merge into the swishtakrut Ahutis. Another need for a Sarva Prayaschittha arises in the context of Pitru Pinda Yagna. If Praneetaagni is weak or as good as put off then the homa karma be discontinued, Sarva Prayaschittha be performed and ‘punah pranaya’ be done before the homa is continued again. If there are shortcomings in the Pinda Pitru yagna, then Purnaahiti be performed as follows: Pindapitru yagna lopeyVaishvaanara charuh Saptahotraakhya mahaa havirhotyeyaadi mantreh Purnahutirva/ ( Purnahuti be done with Vaishwaanara charu Saptahotya –akhya Maha Havi or Hota Mantras). Also, in connection with actions like Sharanaa Karma, Sarpa bali, Ashwiyuji, Aagrayana and Pratyavarohana are not perfected, then Praajaapatya kruccha must be done. Those who who have not done Aagrayana should offer Vaishvaanara Charu to Agni be way of Navaanna Bhakshana. If Ashtakaa is not done then the person concerened should observe Upavasa. If Purnendu Shraaddha is not done then too Upavasa be observed or in place of that provide a good Bhojana. If Anvaashtaka is not achieved then there should be a Japa by hundred times of the Rucha viz. Yebhirdubhi Sumanaa Yebhirundubhih etc.and Imey ye Dhishnyaasa etc. Purnahuti be done when- ever Charu homa is done.

Lapses and remedies: Further,  certain lapses like Stree Sangam on forbidden Tithis,  performance of Yagnaas on avoidable Tithis, delay in observing Darsha Purnamaasa Vrata, consumption of ‘Lahsan’ or garlic and such forbidden eatables, Abhojya Bhojana from Persons or of materials and so on require to be rectified by Aajya homa with the Mantras: Punarmaataitwindriyam and Imey ye Dhishnyaasa or atleast by way of Japas. In case a dove,or Kite or owl  rests on a house, then the recital of Devah Kapota Sukta be done or ghrita homa as per Paka Yagna Tantra. On getting bad dreams, the Rucha of yo mey Rajanyujyo vaa be recited after Sun set. To overcome fevers or diseases, Charu homa be done with  Munchamitvaa Sukta and perform Panchaahutis and with the sixth Aahuti the ‘Swishta kruta’. On doing Prokshani and Praneeta, as the  drops of water are sprinkled then recite the three Ruchas of Apohishta besides perform Ghritaahutis with Tatam mey apastadutaayatey Rucha. In case Samidha-adhaana is not held but  is reminded about it after the Aajya bhaaga, then Viparyasa Prayaschittha be done and Samidadhana again and then perform Pradhana Yaaga. If Pradhana Yaga is held even before Agni Samvidhana, that again is a blunder and demands Siddhi Prayaschitta. Either the husband or wife of a family should be present at the nearness of Agni at the time of Sun rise and Sun set. If both of them  leave the house and cross the boundaries of the village or township without attending to the homa then on return, Agni Punaraadhaana be done . If frequent lapses of Agni occur, then Agni gets the risk of Naasha or destruction. Agni also tends to decay if jala nimajjana or bathing is  done after Atmasamaaropana or resort to copulation on Nishidda Tithis. If a Karta has

more than one wife and if neither of the wives looks after the Agni,then also Agni naasha is expected. When the husband is away and wife neglects the Agni, then the latter gets extinguished. In fact, ‘punaradhaana’  and ‘pavitreshti’ or revival and re-instatement  is not done even when the Karta neglects for a over a year then Agni Nasha is inevitable. Rajodoshey samutpanney ritakey sutakey piva, Pravasannagnimaam Viprah punataadhana marhati/ ( When the wife is in menses, or when there occurs Sutaka due to deaths or births in thefamily, Agni punaradhana is required.)  Nachaagni homavelaayaam pravasennacha parvani/( There should not be travels at the time of Homa or during the Parva dinas, the Karta is forbidden to travel and if so Punaraadhana is inevitable). Pachanaagnou pachedannam sutakey mrita kepivaa, Apaktwaatu vaseydraatrim punaraadhaana marhati/ (Paaka Karya or cooking of grais or charu has to be done daily in the  Homaagni and even if this is not  done in a night even Punaraadhana  of  Agni is a must. Rigvedis opine that after Vivaha homa or Griha pravesha homa, the Nityaagni Kartaas ought to perform punaraadhana of Grihaagni. Further, Aahitaagnis do not eat food cooked by others except jaggery and milk. However, they eat as an exception of what is cooked with milk and ghee only without water. In the ‘Pratarhoma’ what ever is cooked in the Homagni and is left over is mixed with that which is cooked by wife or a relative with ‘Shuchi’or purity. In the ‘Paakaagni’even if one day is not cooked then there sure is a case for Puna- raadhaana.

The qualification of a genuine Brahmana: Another significant fact in this connection is: Yasya Vedasascha Vedeecha vicchidetyo Tripurusham, Savai durbraahmanoyassarva karmasu garhitah/ Agnihotram prakurveeta Jnaanavaan Shraddhayaanvitah, Agnihotraatparo dharmo nabhuto na bhavishyati/  ( He whose vamsha in which three Purushaas including himself possessed neither Vedaas nor  Agni Vedika is called a Durbrahmana and is not eligible for any Dharma Karma or  pious task; he is certainly among the condemnable lot. There can be no lofty Dharma higher than that of knowledge and devotion either in the days of yore or in the contemporary Society! Yodadyaatkanchanam Merum Prithiveemcha sa Saagaram, Tatsaayam Praatarhomasya tulyam bhavati Maanavaa! ( It is difficult to assess whether charity of gold measuring Meru Mountain and as much of all Oceans put together might or not be equal to the fruits of executing the Morning and Evening Homa Vidhi with sincerity and faith!

Nitya daana vidhi: Ekasminnapyatikraantey diney daana vivarjitey, Dasyubhirmumshitasyeva yuktamaakrandium bhrusham/ Tasmaadwibhava anu –saarena Dhana Dhaanyaadi deyam sambhvey, Phugee phalaadimapi pratyaham deyam Tato Gobrahmanaadi mangala darshanam/ ( Even one day is adequate to a person to cry hoarses like  a Traveller plundered by high handed bandits. That is why one should give away in charity each day according to one’s own status and capacity; if nothing he could part with a bit  not necessarily  his riches that he might not possess but even a flower or a fruit or a betel leaf. That sincerity in giving a Daana would surely usher to him glimpses of Cows and Brahmanas  and aside from them excellent tidings of propitiousness!). It has been emphasised again and again that Anna-Daana is of highest significance: Sarveyshaameva Daanaanaam Anna daanam param smrutam, Sarveshaameva jantunaam yataschajjeevitam phalam/ Yasmaadannat prajaah sarvaah kalpey kalpeyssrujat Prabhuh, Tasmaadannaat  param daanam na bhutam na bhavishyati/  (Among all the Danaas the outstanding one is of Anna daana since that daana done by all Beings bestows life-long blessings and that is so in any Kalpa or any Kaala. Indeed the significance of this daana is not only unprecdented but is everlasting) Skanda Purana states: Dharmaartha Kaama Mokswhaanaam Dehaha parama saadhanam, Stithistasya- annapaanabhyamatastat Sarvasaa -dhanam/ Annam Prajaapatih saakshaadannam Vishnuh Shivahswayam, Tasmaadanna samam daanam na bhutam nabhavishyati!  (Among all the Purushardhaas viz. Dharma-Artha- Kaama –Moksha, the single and unique Saadhana  or Means to achieve is Anna daanam. In fact, Annam is Prajapati Himself; It is of  Vishnu and Shiva Swarupaas. That is why the validity of Anna daana in the remote past and of distant future!) Note: In the Ahnika Prakarana, the First Segment has been provided with the Do’s and Don’ts of a  Routine Day, especially of Sandhya Vandana and Homa Vidhi. The forthcoming Second  Segment highlights Veda Shastraabhyaasa as a component of total Eight Segments. Second Segment as follows:

Veda Shastraabhyaasa: Pathedadhyaapayedvedaan japachhaiva vicharayet, Avekshetey cha Shaastraani Dharmaani Dwijotthamah/ (A Brahmana is required to practise Veda Pathana, Upadesha and Vimarsha or Reading, Teaching and Criticise constructively; so should be the way for Dharma Shastras too). Vedaabhyasa is to be followed by Devataarchana, Prathahkaal Homa, Brahma Yagna and in the day’s chaturtha bhaaga the Vedaabhyaasa. Vidhaaya Devataa pujaam Pratarhomaa -nantaram, Kurveeta Devataa Pujaam Japa Yagnaanantaram / ( After Homa Karya in the morning, Deva Puja be done as also after Japa Yagna.). Deva Puja is done  thrice a day at the Three Kaalaas. If not possible, then the Pujas be performed in the morning and afternoon with ‘Gandhadikopachaaras’ and in the evening  Deva Puja is done by way of ‘Aarati’. The Pujaas are done to one’s own Abhishta -Devata such as Vishnu-Brahama-Shiva- Surya-Shakti-Ganesha etc. In Kali Yuga however, it is widely believed that Vishnu-Shiva Puja is of significance. It is stated : Na Vishnavaanaaraathaat punyam Vidyatey Karma Vaidikam kwachit, Tasmaadanaadi madhyaantam Nityamaaraadhettaram/ (There is no other Veda Karma than Puja to Vishnu as he has no beginning nor end); or Deva meeshanam Bhagavatam Sanaatanam, Pranavey naathavaa Rudra Gaayatrya Triambakena vaa/ (Alternatively, Puja be performed to Ishana with Pranava, or Rudra Gayatri or of Triambaka Mantra or Om Shhivaya Namah Mantra.The Pujas are done to Pratimas or Shaalgraama or Baana Linga. Avaahana (Invocation) and Visarjana (Termination) are required to only to Fixed Idols but not to Pratimas. At the appropriate time after Suryodaya, the ‘nirmaalya’ or the left-over of the previous puja by cleared and initiate the Puja Proceedings with ‘Ghantaa naadam’ and ‘Praanaayama’ with the Mantra Recital of Om YebhoyMaataa, Om Avaapitrye and the Sankalpa of Shri Maha Vishnu pujaam karishye Or Rudra Vinaayaka Surya Shakti parivruta Shri Maha Vishnu Pujaam karishey/ This would be followed by Asanaadi Sevas and the Vishnu  Sukta of Shodasa Ruchaas whose Rishi is Narayana, Devataa is Purusha, Chhanda is Anushthup and at the end Trishtubh commencing with Sahasra Sirsha Purusha/

[Purusha Sukta with brief meanings: 1) Sahasra Sirsha Purshah Sahasraakshah Sahasra paat, Sa Bhubim Vishvato Vrutwaa Atyatishthaddashaagulam/  (Bhagawan/ Maha Purusha who has countless heads,eyes and feet is omnipresent but looks compressed as a ten-inch measured Entity!)2) Purusha ye Vedagum sarvam yadbhutam yaccha bhavyam, Utaamritatwa--syeshaanah yadanney  naa ti rohati/( He is and was always present submerging the past and the future and is indestrucible and far beyond the ephemeral Universe)  3) Yetaavaa nasya Mahimaa Atojjyaaya -gumscha Puurushah,  Paadosya Vishwa Bhutaani Tripaadasya -amritam Divi/  ( What ever is visualised in the Creation is indeed a minute fraction of His magnificence and what ever is compehensible is but a quarter of the Eternal Unknown)  4)Tripaadurdhwa Udait Purushaha Paadosyehaa bhavaatpunah, Tato Vishvan -gvyakraamat saashanaa nashaney abhi/ (Three-fourths of the Unknown apart, one fourth emerged as the Universe and the Maha Purusha is manifested across the Totality of the Beings including the animate and inanimate worlds) 5) Tasmaadwiraadajaayata ViraajoAdhi Puurushah, Sa jaato Atyarichyata paschaadbhumimatho purah/ (From out of that Adi Purusha, the Brahmanda came into Existence and Brahma spread himself all over and became Omni Present.Then He created Earth and Life to Praanis.)   6)Yatpurushena havishaa Deva Yagna matanvata,,Vasanto Asyaaseedaajyam Greeshma Idhmassharaddhavih/  ( The Yagna Karyas  done by Devatas with Maha Purusha as the Aahuti converted Vasanta Kaala as Ghee, Greeshma Kaala as Indhana or the wooden pieces, and Sarat Kaala as Havi or Naivedya); 7)Saptaasyaasanparidhayah Trissapta Samidhah Kritaah, Devaad Yagnam tanvaanaah Abadhnan Purusham Pashum/ (To this Yagna, Pancha Bhutaas of ‘Prithi-vyaapas-tejo- vaayura akaashaas’ and the Day and Night as the ‘Parithis’ or the boundaries of the Yagna Kunda; twenty one Tatwaas viz. Pancha Karmendriyas, Pancha Jnaanendriyas, Pancha Bhutas, Three Ahamkaaras, Three Tanmatras of Sprasha-Rupa-Rasa; and Mahatawa  as Samidhaas; Devatas as Ritwiks and Brahma as Yanga Pashu) 8)Tam Yagnam barhishi proukshan Purusham jaatama -gratah, Tena Devaa Ayajanta Saadhyaa Rishayascha ye/  (All the Participants of the Yahna viz. Devas, Sadhyaas, Rishis and such others perform the ‘Prokshana’ or sprinkled the Sacred Water on the Yagna Purusha and accomplished the Yagna);9) Tasmaad yagnaat Sarvahutah Sambhrutam prushadaajyam, Pashugstaagschakrey vaayavyaan Aranyaangraamaschaye/  ( In this Universal Yagna emerged ‘Dadhighrita’ or Curd-Ghee Mix, Birds, Ferocious and normal animals, and such others were crerated); 10) Tasmaadyagnaatsarva hutah Ruchassaamaani jajnirey, Chaandaagumsi jajnirey tasmaat Yajustasmaa dajaayata/ (In this Prapancha Yagna were created Rig Veda Mantras, Sama Veda Mantras, Gayatri and other  Chaandasaas out of which Yajur Vedas too emerged).11)

Tasmaadashwaa Ajaayanta yekeycho bhayaadatah, Gaavo hajagjnirey tasmaat tasmaa jyaataa Ajaavayah/ (From this Yagna were created horses, two lined teeth Mrigas, Pashus of four legs like cattle, sheep and buffalos). 12) Yat Purusham vyadadhuh katidhaavyakalpayan, Mukham kimasya kou baahoo kaavuuroo paadaavuchyetey/ ( As Devas made the Sacrifice of Brahma, of what all Forms were manifested; of which type was His  Face; of what kind were His hands and of form were His thighs and Feet?) 13) Brahmanosya Mukhamaaseet Baahoo Raajanyah krutah, Vooroo tadasya yadvyshyahi Padbhyaagum Shudro Aajaayata/ ; 14) Chandramaa Manaso jaatah Chaksho Suryo Ajaayatam, Mukhaadindraaschaagnischa Praanaadvaayurajaayata/ (From His Mind was manifested Chandra Deva, His eyes Surya Deva, His face Indra and Agni and from His Prana the Vayu Deva);15) Naabhyaa aaseedantariksham Seershno Dhyoh Samavartata, Padbhyaam Bhumir-dishaha Shrotraat tataa Lokaagum Akalpayan/  (From the Lord’s navel came out the ‘Antariksha’, His Head the Swarga, His Feet the Earth, Dishas or Directions from His Ears;  and likewise the various  Lokaas); 16)Vedaahametam Purusham Mahaantam, Aditya Varnam Tamasastupaarey, Sarvaani Rupaani Vichitya Dheerah Naamaani krutwaabhivadan yadaastey/  ( Thus I have realised that Paramatma manifested Himself in innumerable Forms and nomenclatures and that He is a Kaarya- shila or of Practicalities, Mahimanvita or of Undefinable Grandeur, the Ever Lustrous Sun-Like  Appearance or of Innner Consciousness far away from Darkness or Agjnaana); 17) Dhaataa purastaa –dyamuhaa jahaara Shakrah pravidwaanpadishaschatasrha, Tamevam Vidwaanamrita iha bhavati Naanyah pandhaa Ayanaaya Vidyatey/ ( It is that illustrious and knowledgeable  person possessive of the Supreme Awareness realising Paramatma and recognises and visualises Indra and other Dishaa -dhipaas that is qualified to attain Mukti; indeed there is no other route to Moksha!) 18)Yagnena Yagnamayajanta Devaah Taani Dharmaani Prathamaanyaasan, tey ha naakam Mahi Maanah sachantey yatra purvey Saadhyaah santi Devaah/  (Devataas came to worship Paramatma by means of this Yagna and assumed the Primary Forms of Manifestations of Dharma; The intial and arduous procedures of Dharma that were assiduously practised by Devatas and Sadhyaas came to the Guidelines and whosoever followed the Regulations like performing Yagnas are competent to achieve higher Lokas.) 19) Adbhyah sambhutaha Prithivyairasaascha Vishva karmanah samavartataatdhi tasya, Twashtaa Vidadhadrupameti tatpurushasya Vishva -ajanamagrey/ ( As the Universe got manifested from water and the Essence of Bhumi, Paramatma creatred Brahma and the latter created the Universe. That Brahma filled in the Fourteen Lokas and thus the whole Creation is the handi- work of Brahma!) 20)Vedaaha meham Purusham Mahaantam Aditya Varnam tamasah parastaat , Tamevam Vidwanamrita iha bhavati naanyah pandhaa Vidyateya -naaya/ ( If any person  could realise that Supreme Soul who is too magnificent to vision like Surya much less to visualise then he is as good as Paramatma Himself; that is the way to attainment and the  the path of Glory and Moksha.) 21)Prajaapatischarati garbhey Antah Ajaaya-maano bahudhaavija -atey tasya, Dheeraah parijaa -nanti yonim Mareecheenaam padamicchanti vedhasah/ ( Paramatma is reputed as a highly action-oriented Splendrous and Supreme Being who has neither beginning or termination. Mahaatmas and Maharshis like Marichi are indeed aware of His Accurate Form and crave and toil to Attain Him) 22) Yo Devebhya Aatapati yo Devaa -naam Purohitah, Purvoyo Devebhoy Jaatah Namo Ruchaa Braahmaye/ ( May I prostrate before the hallow of that Paramatma who illuminates Devas, whom Devas earnestly consider in the highest esteem as they are but His own reflections and who is the Eternal and Singular Truth). 23) Rucham Braahmam janayantah Devaa Agrey tadabruvan, Yasthyai -vam Brahmano idvaat tasya Asan vashey. ( As Devas made great endeavours to understand an inkling of what Paramatma was all about as they could never get even some clues initially, then Devas  realised that whosoever among the Devotees similarly made enormous efforts to execute genuine quests  about Him should automatically obtain their control mechanism too.) 24 )Hreesha tey Lakshmischa Patnou Aho raatrey paarsvey Nakshatraani Rupam Ashvinou vyaattham/ (Hey Vishnu Bhagavan! Your ‘Ardhaanganis’ or ‘Better Halves’ are Hree Devi the Symbol of Modesty and Lakshmi Devi the Emblem of Prosperity  are your side manifestations of ‘Ahoraatraas’ or day and night. The Nakshatraas constitute your Celestial Formation.  And Ashvini Devatas are the full visage of yours as flower blooms!) 25) Ishtam Nanishaana Amum Manishaana Sarvam manishaana, Om  taccham yoraavrinee Mahey/ (Bhagavaan! We beseech your kindness and grace a to grant us the  bestowing of successful and worthwhile fulfillment of our Iham and Param ; Bhagavan!)]While reciting Purusha Sukta, the Karta should perform Nyasa as follows:  First and Second Ruchas with left and right hands; third anfd fourth and fifth Ruchas with left and right feet; fifth and sixth Ruchas with left and right knees; seventh and eighth Ruchas with left and right katis or waists; the ninth Rucha with naabhi or navel; the tenth with Hridaya; the elevent with kantha or neck; the twelfth and thirteenth with left and right hands; the fourteenth Rucha with face; and the sixteenth Rucha with head. This is how the ‘Anga Nyasa’ be achieved with the major limbs of the Kartha. The last of the Ruchas is tuned with the Hridaya and the last of the of the Ruchas are recited with the rest of the body parts.The Puja materials include Kalasha, Shankha, Ghanta etc. and after prokshana of the ‘Saamagri’ the Kartha performs Arghya and Achamaniya and commences the worship to Vishnu Pratima with the ‘Shodashopachaaraas’ as per the Shodashopa Ruchas of Purusha Sukta: With the First Rucha, Avahana be done; if Salagraama is not in Place, Mantra Pushpa Khanda be recited and with the prayer Shri Maha Vishnavey namah, Shri Krishnaaya, Shiva Vinaayaka Surya Shaktibhyah etc.  Then with the Second Rucha ‘Aasana’ be provided, the Third with ‘Paadya’, fourth with ‘Arghya’, fifth with Aachamana, Sixth with ‘Snaana’-if possible Panchamrita Snaana with Chandana, Go Ksheera, Karpura, Kunkuma and Agaru Suvaasita Jala by reciting Aapyaayasva and /or Suvarna gharmaanu- vaaka, Maha Purusha Vidya, Purusha Sukta and Raajana Saama. With the Seventh Rucha, the Seventh Service be provided by Vastra, the eighth with  Yagnopaveeta, the ninth with Gandha, the tenth with Pushpa, the eleventh with Dhupa, the twelfth with Deepa- Ghanta- Mangala Vaayujya; the thirteenth with Naivedya-Taambula-Phala-Dakshina-Neeraajana; the fourteenth with Saashtaanga Pranaama or Prostration; the fifteenth with Visarjana or Pushpaanjali. All the Sixteen Services need to be done with the accompanying recitals of the concerned Ruchas of Purusha Sukta, while performing Aachamana at the end of each Service and Anna-Aahutis and Pushpas. Brihat Paraashara Samhita summed up as Aasana-Paadya- Arghya-Aachamana- Snaana- Panchaamrita Snaana- Vastrea-Yagnopaveeta-Gandha-Pushpa-Dhupa-Deepa-Naivedya- Taamboola- Phala- Dakshina-Neeraajana-Pushpaanjali. After the Puja on these lines, the Karta should touch the feet of the Pratima and should pray to say: Prapannam paahimaameesha bheetam Mrityugrahaarnavaat/  (Ishwara! Provide me the Shield to the fearful onslaughts of the Ocean of ‘Mrityugraha’! Thereafter, the Nirmalya or the left -overs of the Puja be placed on  the heads of the Karta and those who join in the worship, take the Shanka Jala on the heads as also swallow it up. But do not keep the flowers kept on Vishnu Pratimas’s head on one’s head. It is stated that the Tirtha from Brahmana’s feet is taken in first and then Vishnu Padodaka be taken. Shialagrama -shila jala should be taken in but not sprinkled on head.

Puja Phala: To quote Skanda Purana: Kaamaasaktothavaa Kruddhah Shaalagraama shilaarchanaat, Bhaktya vaa yadi vaabhaktya Kalou muktimavaapnuyaat/ Kathaam yah kurutey Vishnoh Shaalagraama shilaa -gratah, Vaivasata bhayam naasti tathaa cha Kalikaalajam/ Paayaschittam hi paapaanaam Kalou padodakam Hareyh, Ghrutey shirasi peetey cha Sarvaatyushtanti Devataah/ (Either due to the desire of fulfillment of a wish or due to anger of not fulfillment or by way of even disbelief, if any person  performs a half-hearted puja to a Salagrama Shila, he or she in Kaliyuga is sure to succeed Salvation. If a person sits before a Sala -grama and listens to Vishnu Kathaa, that person is certain to escape the fear of Yama! In Kali Yuga, the easy paraschitta from sins committed constitutes the  consumption of  Vishnu padodaka and its reverential Dharana on one’s head.

Puja Lopa Dosha: Kurma Purana affirmed: Yo Mohaadatha -vaalaswaa dakrutwaa Devataarchanam, Bhuktye sayaati Narakam Sookareshwabhi jaayatey/ (Those out of ignorance or callousness who consume food without performing ‘Devaarchana’every morning is bound to go to Hell after his life and would take his rebirth as a pig. It is essential that after Puja to Deva one should revere parents and Guru: Yasya Deveyparaabhaktiryathaa Devey tathaagurou/ (In the same way that a person worships Devas, so he should perform parents and Guru). Maharshi Sumantu asserted: Aayuh Puman yashah Swargam Keerthim Pushtim Balam Shriyam, Pashum Sukham Dhanam Dhaanyam Praapunuyaat Pitru vandanam/  (By sincerely performing Pitru Vandana, one enjoys Keerti, Swarga, Pushti, Sukham, Dhana-Dhanyaas).Manu stated: yam Maataappitarou klesham sahetey sambhavey Nrinaam, Na tasya nishkritih shakyaa kartum Varsham shatairapi/ Imam lokam Maatru bhaktya Pitru Bhaktya tu madhyamam, Guru susrushayatwavam brahmalokam samushnatey/ (Those who perform the duty of a mother and father are blessed; Matru Bhakti is most fulfilling followed by that of the father; indeed ‘Guru Susrusha’ is not only  rewarding in the current life but enables to attain Brahma loka too.)

Third Segment  of Dina Charya: After the Pratah Sandhya Vandana, Homopaasana and Devatarchana, the next significant ‘Dainandina Karya’ is devoted to Atma Poshana. It is stated: Shannantu Karmanaam Madhyetreni karmaani Jeevikaa, Yaajanaadhyaapaney chaiva Vishuddhascha pratigruhah/ ( The major Six Karmaas of a  Brahmanan are to perform Yagnas, Vedaadhyayana or Reading Vedas, giving Daanaas, getting Yagnaas performed, teaching Vedas and accepting Daanaas or charities). Of these, three are ‘Jeevana Saadhanaas’ or means of Livelihood. Shri Bhagavata Purana stated: Pratigraham manyamaanastapasteyjoyashonudam, Anyaabhyaameva Jeeveta shilairvaa dosha pruktayoh/ ( If receiving Danaas tends to reduce the deposits of Tapas, Teja and Kirti, then one has to resort to ‘Yaajanaadhyaapana’or request for alms and free teaching of Vedas; but of that is not acceptable, one might take to ‘Shila Vritthi’ or ‘Vyavasaaya’ or farming or cottage industries). But Shilonchanam Kalou nishiddham/ That is the methods of Shilocchana  are forbidden in Kali Yuga.  Krishi or farming and cottage industries or Seva vritti have social stigmaas. However for the sake of the Upkeep of family, Kusula dhaanya or Saving for the next twelve days or Kummi Dhanya or Saving for six days ahead would be essential. As against these feelings aginst Vaanijya, Krisha and Seva Vritti in view of the dilution of Brahmanatwa, the contempoary Society has witnessed a Sea Change and lost relevance now.

Madhyaana Sandhyaa Vidhi:  Being the Fourth Segment of the Ahnikaas or the  Dina charya, the Maadhyahnika Snaana be done by applying Mrittika unlike in the  Pratah Snaana which  is done after applying Cow dung on the body. Following the preliminaries of the Keshavaadi Namaas, the Marjana Mantra of Apohishtha mayobhuvah,‘Apah prashana’ is done with in stead of the Mantra of Suryaschamaananyusha etc. the replaced Mantra viz. : Om Aapah Punantu Prithiveem Prithivi Putaa punaatumaam, Punantu Brahmanaspatir Brama putaa punaatumaam/ Yaducchishthamabhojjyam yadwaa duscharitam mama, Sarvam punantu maamaaposataam cha prtatiguhyataam swaahaa/ Aachamana be done then. To this Mantra the Rishi is Narayana Yagnyavalkya, Apah Prithivi Brahmanaspati is Devata, Rishta is the Chhanda.Then Atma Prokshana  is done with Dadhikraavunno—Bhurbhuvassuvah till Asavaadityo Brahmaa Brahmaivaahamasmi etc. After Aghamarshana ie. Paapa Purusha dahana,  the Karta would stand up and recite the Mantra: Om Hamsaha Shuchishat  whose Rishi is Gautama, Surya is Devata, Jagati is Chhanda and its Viniyoga is Suryorghya daana and after recital provide Arghya and Suryopasthaana. The  Udyuktyam Ruchas have Prashkanva as Rishi, Surya as Devata, Gayatri / Anushthup as Chhandaas and Surtopasthana as Viniyoga. The Ruchas state: Udyam tamasaspari pashyanto Jyotiruttamam, Devam Devatraa Suryamaganma Jyotiruttamam/Udyutyam Jaatavedasam Devam Vahanti Ketavah, Drusho Vishwaaya Suryam/ Some Vidwans make Upasthana with the Ruks viz. Chitram Devaanaamudagaadaneekam Chakshur Mitrasya Varunastaayeganah, Aapraa dyaavaaprithivi AntarikshaSuryaAatmaaJagastat-sthyushascha/Tadchhakshurdevahitampurastaacchukramuscharaat, Pashyema Sharadasshatam Nandaama Sharadasshatam modaama sharadasshatam /Bhavaam sharadasshatam Shrunavaama sharadasshatam, Prabravaama sharadasshatam jeetaasyaama sharadasshatam jyokucoo cha Suryam drushey/ Thus after Suryopasthaanathe rest would be as in the Pratah Sandhya itself. In the night the Arghyapradaana be done with Aakrishnena Mantra. To execute Prayaschitta, a second Arghya be provided and conclude the Upasthaana with Havishyaantamadi Pancha Ruchaas/                    

Taittiriyana Madhahnika Sandhya: Taittireeyaas perform Aachamaniya with the Mantra Aapah punantu and with Dadhihraavrun give Arghya to Surya and as before stand up and perform ‘Upasthaana’. The relevant Mantras are: Om Udvyam Om Udyutyam Jatavedhasam Om Chitram Devaanaam Om TatcchhashthurDevahitam purastaat Om Ya Udagaan mahato and so on. Kartiyanaas also recite Aapah punantu as stated earlier; one Arghya to Gayatri; Upasthaana is with Udvaayana and other Ruchas; and if possible with Vibhraat etc Anuvaka after Japaanta as in the case of the Pratah kala Sandhya.

Saayam Sandhya: The Evening Sandhya is also on the lines of the Morning Sandhya, excepting the ‘Mantraachamana’ with the Mantra: Agnischamaakshanyuscha Manyupatayascha Manyukrutebhyah Paapebhyo Rakshantaam,Yadahna Paapa makaarsham/ Manasaa Vaachaa hastaabhyaam padbhyaamudarena Shishnaa, Ahastadavalampatu Yatkincha duritam mayi Idamiham maamamtrutayonou/ Satye jyotishi juhomi swaahaa/  The Upasthaana Mantra is to Varuna Deva with Imammey Varuna shrudhee havamadyaa cha Mridaya Tatwaavasyuraachakey/ Tatwaayaami Brahmanaa Vandamaanasta daashaastey Yajamaano havirbhih/ Ahedamaano Varunehabodhyuru sagumsamaa na Aayuh pramoshih/ Yacchidditey visho yathaa prtadeva Varuna vratam minimasidya-vidyavi/ Yatkinchidedam Varuna Daivyejanebhi droham Manushyaascharaamasi/ Achitteeyattava Dharmaayu yopi mamaanastasmaa denaso Devarii rishaah/ Kitavaaso yadri rupena deviyadvaagha –asatyamutayaanna vidma, Sarvaataavishya shitireva Devataa syaama Vanuna priyaasah/                  Following the Upasthaana, there should be Samishthi Devataa Vandana and Narayana Samarpana.

Brahma Yagna: This has to be performed after Pratah Homa or  after the Madhyaahnika Sandhya or after the Vaishwa  Deva. According to the Bhattoji Dikshita Grandha, Brahma Yagna be done after Pratah Kaala Ahuti while Aashvayaalanaas felt that its ‘Anushthaana’ should be appropriately be after Madyaahna Sandhya. The Karta should preferably wear a dry Vastra, and after Aachamana and Pranaayama should make the Sankalpa: Parmeshwara preetyartham Brahma Yagnam Karishye tadandatayaa Deva Rishyaachaarya tarpanam karishye/ ( Parameshwara! I intend  to perform Brahma Yagna and as an ancillary to do Pitru Tarpana also ; --in case parents are not alive –Mrita Pitru tarpanam Karishye/ )  He  should sit in yogic form or in ‘Padmaasana’ on ‘Darbhaas’ facing towards East  keep Kushas in postion and recite Pranava Mantra viewing through  the ‘Bhrumadhya’ as also the Agnimeeley Sukta  in full. Those who know Vedas should commence the ‘Adhyaayana’ with Rig Veda followed by other Vedas to the extent that they could. Reading of further Scriptures like Shastra Purana Exctracts too should continue topping up with Purusha Sukta and finally thrice with Namo Brahmaney namo Astwagnaye namah Prithivyai nama Aoushathibhyaha Namo Vaachey Namo Vaachaspataye Namo Visnavey brihatey karomi. The rest of ‘Vedaadhyayana’could be done while standing, walking or lying down as suggested by Aashvalaayanaas.

Tarpana Vidhana: Deva Tarpana be first performed with ‘Darbhaagraas’ and finger tops in ‘Savyopaveeta’ position. Devarshi Tarpana with ‘Saakshataas’ or rice grains; Tila Tarpana is done for Acharyas and Pitru Devatas. Deva Tarpana: Prajaapatirtrupyatu, Brahmaa Trupyatu, Vedaa-strupyantu, Devaas -trupyantu, Rishayastrupyantu, Sarvaani Chhandaamsi Tripyantu, Omkaara -strupyatu, Vashat kaarastrupyatu, Vyahrutayan tripyantu, Savitri tripyatu, Yagnaas tripyantu, Dyaavaa Prithivi triptayaam, Antrariksham Tripyatu, Ahoraatraani tripyantu, Saankhyaastrupyantu, Siddhaas Tripyantu,Samudraastupyantu, Nadyastruptyantu, Giriyastrup yantyum, Kshetroshadhi -Vanaspati Gandharvaasparastupyanu, Naagaas trupyantu,Vayaamsi trupyantu, Gaavastrupyantu, Saadhyaastrupyantu, Vipraastrupyantu, Yakshaastrupyantu,, Rakshaamsi tripyantu, Bhutaani tripyantu, Yevamataani tripyantu/
Now to Rishis: Being ‘Niveeti’ or wearng the Yagnopaveeta around the neck like a garland, Tarpana be performed with water flowing through the fingers and Darbhas as follows: Shatarshinastrupyantu, Maadhyaamaa strupyantu, Grutsamada -strupyantu, Vishwaamitrastrupyatu, Vaamadevastrupyatu, Atristrupyatu, Bharadwaajastrupyatu, Vasishthastruptyatu, Pragaadhaa -strupyantu, Paavamaanyas -trupyantu, Kshudra suktaastrup -yantu,and Mahaasuktaastrupyantu; these are seventeen Rishis. Then change the Yagnopaveeta into ‘Praacheenaaveeti’ positionand perform Tarpana in Pitru Tirtha position ie water flowing through thumb and fingers id doule ‘darbhaagras’ to: Acharyas viz.Sumantu-Jaimini-Vaishampaayana-Paila-Sutra Bhashya-Bhaarata-Maha Bhaarata-Dharmaachaa-ryaa strupyantu; Jaananti Baahavi Gaargya Goutama Shaakalya Baabhravya Maandavya Maandukeyastrupyantu; Gaargi vaahaknaveet Trupyatu;Vadavaa Praatideyastrupyatu; Sulabhaa Maitreyistrupyatu; Kaholastrupyatu; Mahaa Koushitakastrupyatu;Paingastrupyatu; Suyajastrupyatu, Saankhyaaya -nastrupyatu, Itareyastrupyatu, Mahaitareyastrupyatu, Shaakalas -trupyatu, Bhaashkalastrupyatu, Sujaata vaktrastrupyatu, Aoudavaahistrupyatu, Mahoudavaahi strupyatu, Soujaamitrupyatu, Shounakastrupyatu, Ashwalaayanastrupyatu,Yechaanye Achaaryestey Sarvetrupyantu/ These are twenty three Acharyas.

Now those  Kartaas who do not have their parents alive should perform Pitru Tarpanaas to the Three Generations of Pitras on Paternal and Maternal sides: viz. Pitru-Pitaamaha-Prapitaamaha and Maatru-Maatru Pitaamahi and Prapitaamahi; Matru Matamaha –Maatru Prapitaamaha and other Ekoddhishta Ganaas stating clearly the relationship to the Karta: Sambandham Prathamam bruyaannama gotra manantaram, Paschaadrupam  vijaaneeyaat -krama esha Sanatanah/ that is when the shabda of Pitaram occurs then his Naama Gotras  followed by Vasu-Rudraa-Aditya Swarupas be pronounced. To Devataas, one should offer one ‘Anjali’ or palmful, to Rishis two palmfuls and to Pitru Devatas three palmfuls of offerings be given. To women including mother, only one palmful of offering be given. In case, the Karta is unable to make several Tarpanaas, then he might as well make one composite Tarpana stating: Apastamba paryantam Devarshi Pitru Manavaah, Trupyantu Pitarassarvey Maatru Maataa Mahaadayah/ Ateeta Kulakoteenam Sapta dwipa nivaasinaam, Aabrahma bhuvanaallokaa didamastu tilodakam/ ( I am offering Tilodakaas  to one and all right from Brahma down to Trina (grass-piece) paryanta including Devatas, Rishis , Pitru Devatas and Human Beings besides Matru Maataa Mahaadaas who are the ‘Sapta-dwipasthaas’ of crores of Kulasthaas and drop three palmfuls of water on Bhumi). Later on he should twist his Anga Vastra with water and drop the wateralong with the Mantra: Ekechaasmatkuley jaataa Aputraa gotrajaamrutaah tey gruhnnantu mayaa duttam vastra nishpeedanodakam/ This should be stated in ‘Praacheenaaveeti’ posture of his Yagnopaveeta, while others remain in the ‘Niveeti’ or Garland position.  Tila Tarpana however has to be performed preferably  out of the Karta’s house. Brahma Yagna is preferably performed near a water body. Tarpana is required to be done on Darbhas spread on Bhumi but not in water. Or it can be done in a vessel and latter in a watery ditch but not on plain Earth. The vessel should not be an earthen pot. It is further stated: Daiva Tirtha is that which is offered on the finger tips: Aangulyagrey Daivam Tirtham swalpaangulyoh mulekeyam, Madhye-ngushthangulyoh Paitram Mooleyhyamgushthasyabraahmam/  (When given from the finger tips, the water is called Daiva Tirtha; given from the middle and little fingers it converts as Manushya Tirtha; given from the thumb and middle finger it is Pitru Tirtha and from only the thumb it is called Brahma Tirtha). Besides Tila Tarpana, Pinda Daana and Mrittikaa Snaana are forbidden on Sundays and Fridays, during Krittika-Magha and Bharani Nakshatras and on Manvaadi and Yugaadi Days. At the Shraadhha of parents, and in Nitya Tarpanas Tila Prayoga is forbidden although tila prayoga is allowed on Parva Dinaas despite Tithi-Vaara nishedha. Also, Vikirey pinda daanecha tarpaney snaana karmani aachantassan prakurveeta darbha santyaajanam budhah/ (Darbha Tyaaga is required to be done only after Achamana at the time of Pinda daana and Tarpana) and the Mantra for doing so is:Yeshaam pitaana bhraataa na putronaanya gotrinah, tey sarvey trupimaayaam tu mayot-suushtaih kushodakaih/ ( May my father, brothers, sons or Sagotris be saved from Durgati by these Darbha jalaas!)

Brahma Yagna by Hiranya Keshiyaas: After following the procedure of Sankalpa and Gayatri Japa as stated earlier, the Karta then would state: Isheytorjetwa  and commence the ‘Adhyaaya’ or ‘Anuvaaka’ of Rig-Saama Vedas, Shadangaas, Itihasa-Puranas as per one’s own capacity and conclude stating Namo Brahmaney thrice. To the ‘Taittireeya Shaakhaites’, Tarpana is not a part of Brahma Yagna, which could be done later or earlier. Thus the Hiranya Keshis would straightaway make the Sankalpa: Deva Rishyaachyaarya Pitru Tarpanam karishye/ Having done so, then they start off the Anjali-ful Tarpanas; Deva Tarpana: Brahmaanam Tarpayaami, Prajaapatim Tarpayaami, Brihaspatim Tarpayaami, Agnim Tarpayaami, Vaayum Tarpayaami, Suryam Tarpayaami, Chandrama Tarpayaami, Nakshatraani Tarpayaami, Indragraajaanaam Tarpayami, Yamagraaja -anam Tarpayaami, Varunagraajanaam Tarpayaami,Somagraajaanaam Tarpayaami,Vaishravanag Raajaanaam Tarpayaami, Vasun Tarpayaami, Rudraan Tarpayaami, Adityaan Tarpayaami, Vishwa -devaan Tarpayaami, Sadhya devaan Tarpayaami, Bhrugun Tarpayaami, Marutah Tarpayaami, Adharvanah Tarpayaami, Angirasah Tarpayami/ Afterwards change the Yagnopaveta to ‘Praachee -naaveeti’ and resume the Tarpana to Rishis with two ‘Anjalis’ looking ‘Uttaraabhimukha’ or North -ward: Vishwaamitram Tappayaami, Jamadagnim--, Bharadwaajam--, Gautamim--, Atrim--, Vasishtham--, Kashyapam--, Arundhatim--, Agastyam--, Krishna Dwaipaayanyam--, Jaatukarnyam--, Taruksham--,Trunubindam--, Varminam--, Varudhinam--, Vaajinam--, Satyashrvasam--, Shutashra- vasam--, Somashushmaayanam--, Satyavantam--, Bruhadukdham--, Vaamadevam--, Vaajiratnam--, Haryajwaayanam--, Udayam--, Gautamam--, Runamjayam--, Krutamjayam--, Dhanamjayam--, Babhrum--, Tryarunam--, Trivarsham--, Tridhaatum--, Shibintam--,Paraasharam--, Vishnum--, Rudram--, Skandam--, Kaashheshwaram--, Jwaram--, Dharmam--, Artham--, Kaamaam--, Krodham- Vasishtham--, Indram--, Twashtaaram--, Kartaaram--, Dhartaara--, Dhaataaram--, Mrityum--, Savitaaram--, Savitrim--, Rigvedam--, Yajurvedam--, Saama Vedam--, Atharva Vedam--, Itihasa Puraanam--,Tarpayaami/ Now Tarpanam to Other Rishis looking ‘Dakshinaamukha’ or South Facing with ‘Praacheenaveeti’ with Three Anjalis as follows: Vaishampaayanam Tarpayaami, Veligum--, Tittiram--, Ukham--, Atreyapadakaaram--, Koundinyam Vrittikaaram--,Sutrakaaraan--, Satyaasha--adhaam--,  Pravachanakartrum--, Aachaaryaan--,Rishin--, Vaanaprasthaan--,Urthearetasah--, Ekapatnistarpayaami/ Now Tarpana to Aapastambaa: Brahmadayoyedevastaan, Sarva Devaan, Sarvaan deva ganaanaan, Sarva Deva Patnih, Sarva Deva Putraan, Sarvaan deva Poutraan, Bhurdevaag, Bhuvardevaag, Suvardevaag, Bhurbhuvassuvardevaag, Krishna Dwaipaayanaadayeye Rishastaanrishin, Bhurbhuvassuvaravrishin Tarpayaami. Thereafter  the  Pitru Tarpana: Somah Pitrumaanyamaangirasaswaa-nagnishwaattaan taan Pitrugstarpa –yaami Sarvaan Pitrun tadpitru paryantaha/    

             Katyaayana Brahma Yagna Tarpana: To Katyaayanaas, Brahma Yagna starts with ‘Pragmon- mukha Achamaniya-Pavitra Dharana- Praanaayaama Sankalpa’ with Darbhas in hand seated with right-knee holding ‘Sutraantaraas’ reciting Gayatri thrice and uttering Ishetwaa followed by the ‘Pathana’and ‘Shravana’ of Samhitas-Upanishad –Purana- Itihasaas etc.Then after SwastiVachakas, Madhyaahnika Sandhya be performed and then Tarpana Karya taken over: As stated earlier, darbhas be spread over, a Tamra Parta be positioned on Earth, and ‘Vishwey Devaasa Aavaahana’ and ‘Vishwa Devaah Shrunutey’ be done .

             Deva Tarpana is then initiated: Om  Brahma Tripyataam, Vishnus-Trupyataam, Rudra-Prajapati-Devaastrupyantaam, Chaandaangsi, Vedaah, Rishayah,Puraanaachar-yah, Samvatsrarassavayavah;  Devyasya Trupyantaam, Apsarsah, Devaanugaah, Naagaah, Saagaraah,Parvataah, Saritah, Manushyaah, Yakshaah, Rakshaamsi, Pishachaah, Suvarnaah, Bhutaani, Pashavah, Vanaspatayah, Oshadhayah, Bhutagraama chaturvidhastrupyataam/ Om/  This Deva tarpana is followed by Rishi Tarpana with Sapta Rishayah Mantra in Niveeta Yagnopaveeta as garland and Tarpana  twice over to each of the Sapta Rishis : Sanakastrupyatu,  Sanandanah, Sanaatanah, Kapilah, Aasurih,Vodhuh, Pancha sikhah/ This over, the Karta would assume ‘Apasavya’ position and by stating Ushantatswaa and invoke Pitru Devatas and perform Tarpana with three Anjalis each time; this act is done along with Kavyavaada nala strupyan –taam, Somastuh trupyataam, Yamah--, Aaryamaa--, Agnishwaattah Pitarastrupyantaam, Somapaah Pitarah, Barhishadah--/

             This should be followed by Yama Tarpana as follows: Yamaaya namas -tarpayaami, Dharmaraajaayaa--, Mrityavey--, Antakaaya--, Vaivaswataaya--, Kaalaaya--, Sarva Bhuta Kshayaaya--, Aoudumbaraaya--, Dadhnaaya--, Neelaaya-Parameshthiney--, Vrikodaraaya--, Chitraaya--, Chitra guptaaya--/ Yama Tarpana is optional.

             Pitru Tarpana: A person whose father is dead, then while doing the Tarpana the Kartha in Apasavya position has to keep the Upaveeta down to his Manibandha or wrist and perform the Tarpana to Three Generations of Pitra-Maatru Vargas specifically addressing them one by one with the Ruchaas commencing Udeerataam and keep pouring ‘Tilaajala’ through the right thumb twisted facing South with the Mantras viz. Udeerataam- Angirasona pitaro-Aayantunah-Urjam Vaham Teeramritam-Pitrubhyah -Swadhaavibhyaha- Yecheha- Madhuvaataah  and leave the Tilodakas three times. This would be followed with eight Yajur Mantras to Maha Mahadas as Ekoddishta Ganaas  and execute the Visarjana with the Mantra Devaa gaatu vidah/ The Karta then takes out water of the SnaanaVastra and leave it to attain back Shuchi after the Tarpana.

Vaishvadeva Karya: The Fifth Segment of Dina Kartavyaas, Vaishwdeva is significant as there are five major sources of ‘Jeeva Himsa’ called ‘Panchasuna’: Vaishvadevah prakartavyah Pancha Sunaapanuttaye,Khandani peshani chulli jala kumbhotha maarjani/ ( ‘Khanadani’ or cutting vegetables etc by the Kichen Cutter made of iron or sharp metals, Peshani or pounding and pasting appliances, retaining water in and cleaning of vessels; besides washing the  material and sweeping and floor cleaning). Vaishwadeva is one way of reducing the impact of killing the ‘Pranis’ by way of the these main routine means. This Prakarana of Vaishvadeva commences from the mornings but not as in the Agni Karyaas in the evenings. Hence the Sankalpa: Pratassaayam Vaishva Deva karishye/ In fact, there are Pancha Maha Yagnas that are required to be performed on daily basis viz. Brahma Yagna, Bhuta Yagna, Pitru Yagna, and Manushya Yagna. Rigvedis consider three Yagnas viz. Deva Yagna, Bhuta Yagna and Brahma Yagna; Manushya Yagna is to provide food to Human Beings.Griha pakva havishvaannaistaila kshaaraadi varjitaih, Juhuyaatsirpashaabhyaktaih Gruhyegnou loukikey pivaa/ Yasminngnoupachedannam tasmin homo vidhiyatey/ (  The ‘Havyanna’ or the food which is cooked at home without oil, salt and spice but made of ghee in the ‘Gruhaagni’ or Loukigani or that as prepared at Vivaahaadi Homaas after ‘Nityouposana’ is indeed worthy of Vaishvadeva Karya). Since this Havishaanna is also used for Pitru Yagna and Nitya Shraaddha  this is eminently worthy of consumption by Brahmanas. This Vaishvadeva is therefore a sure means of Atma Samskaara and Anna Samskaara. Therefore there would be one Vaishvadeva in a family unit of undivided brothers. If for any reason, this kind of ‘Anna paaka’ is unavilable, the Vaishvadevaanna might be prepared as of Ekadashi Bhojana made of cooked rice, milk, curd, ghee, fruit and water. Vaishvadeva needs to be done with ‘Anna’ by hand; if this had to be done by water then it has to be by ‘Anjali’. But Kodravam chanakam maasham masuram cha kulutthakam, Kshaaram cha lavanam sarvam Vaishwadevevi varjitam/ ( The afore-mentioned pulses, spices and salt are forbidden for use in the Vaishvadeva Karya.) In case the Kartha leaves station then he should commission a Ritvik to perform the needful. Alternatively he could observe the Karya wherever he goes out of his house. Rigvedis and Taittiriyaas consider it necessary to perform Vaishvadeva both in the day time and the night; they observe it by preparing the Lokaagni Paaka or at Vivahas etc. as described above. When Vaishvadeva is done twice a day/night,then the Vaishnavites light up sixteen or five ‘Deepaas’or Lights. After providing various ‘Upachaaraas’or Services, then they offer Naivedya to Bhagavan Vishnu with the same food meant for consumption of the family and a part of it is given as Viashvadeva. Vishnorniveditaannena yashtavyam Devataantaram, Pitrubhyaschaapi taddeyan tadaanantyaaya kalpatey/( The naivedya offered to Bhagavan Vishnu is what should be offered to other Devataas; in fact this ‘Prasaada’or the ‘Sesha Naivedya’ or the left over food is apt for offering to Pitru Devataas also as that offer would secure ‘Ananta Punya’. In this context, a Vaishnava is stated to have assumed the ‘Diksha’ or Mantrika Discipline from a Guru of the ‘Upadesha’ of the ‘Ashtaakshara Mantra’ and its Japa. Those who are in the ‘Vaishnava Parampara’or of Vaishnava Following do strictly obeserve regulations of Upavasa Dharmaas on Ekadashis and many such self restraints. One might wonder that after all a person could be qulified as Vaishava only if he observes severe procedures and conventions like the observance of ‘Pancha Raatraas’ and so on. This query is replied that it is no doubt observance of Pancha Ratraas etc. are no doubt great qualifications to become a Vaishnava, but there are Vaishnvites among Kshatriyas and Vaishyas too as they do observe Gayatrupadesha-Adhyayana-Daana-Japa-Yagna and such normal Dharmas effortlessly and at the same perform their Varnaashrama dharmas like those of Kshatriya’s Administration and Vaishya’s business duties. They do imbibe qualities of Shuchi, Snaana, Sutakatwa, Shraadha vidhis etc from Vaishnava Brahmanas.

             Ashvalaayana Vaishvadeva Vidhi: Ashvalaayanas perform Vaishvadeva with the Sankalpa: Mamaatmaanna samskaara panchasoonaa janita dosha parihaaradwaara Parmeshwara preetyartham Praataraishva devam Saayam Vaishvadevam cha sahatamtrena karishye/(I shall perform the morning and evening Vaishvadeva to gratify Paramatma to offset the blemishes arising  out of Anna Samskara and Panchasoona vidhis. Then prepare ‘Paakaanna’ in pot by lighting up Pachaagni named Paavaka and on reciting Chatvaari Shringaa and after Prokshana with water all around the ‘Agni Kunda’ saying Vishvaaninah, mix up with ghee and curd and make three parts, offer with right hand one part for Devata Homa uttering Suryaaya swaaha, Suryaayedam namama, Prajapataye, Somaaya, Vanaspataye, Agnishomaabhyaam, Indraagnibhyaam, Dyaavaa Prithivi -bhyaam, Dhanvantaraye Indraaya, Vishvepa- Devebhyah Brahmaney; these are ten ‘Prataravaishwa Devaahutis’. Like wise the ‘Saayam Vaishva -Deveeyaas’ of Agnaye swaahaa, Prajaapataye etc. are done. Thus twenty Aahutis are offered to Agni deva and perform ‘Parisha -muhana’ around the Homa Kunda  with water by way of Sparsha and ‘Paryukshana’ by way of prokshana saying Om chamey. Then the ‘Upasthyaana Karya’ or terminal task be done. This is the procedure of Deva Yagna.

             Bali Harana: Out of the remainder ‘Anna Bhaga’, a portion be kept  on clean Bhumi around the Homa Kunda and offer to  Agni uttering Suryaaya swaahaa Suryaaya idam namah; in this fashion, there should be sixteen Ahutis from the portions kept on  the East side with space in between and utter: Adbhya swaaha, Oshadhi vanaspatibhyah, Gruhaabhyah, Griha Devataabhyaha, Vaastu Devataabhyaha/ Then continue the Ahutis from the Eastern side as follows: Indraaya and to the North direction Indrapurushebhyah; to Yama purushebhyah towards Sky on the Southern side; Varuna Purushebhyah to the Eastern side; Soma Purushebhyah  on northern side; and Brahmaney, Brahma Purushebyah, VishwebhyhoDevebhyah Sarvebhyo Devebhyah, Divaachaa –ribhyah/Like wise Saayamkaala Vaishva Deva Bali harana too be performed.

             Bhuta Yagna: The third part of the Anna Bhaga is offered with ‘Praacheenaa veeti’ addressed to Yama uttering Swadhaa Pitrubhyah and on the Southern side Pitrubya idam namah to Pitru Devatas.  Some persons perform Bali Harana in a circular manner; Balaavanudhrutey naadyaannodhareccha Swayam Bali/   (Before the Bali daana none in the family should consume food , nor one should perform Bali by him self). Pitru Yagna: After the Bali daana, the Karta should have the homefront done up with Jala Prokshana and offer the Pitru Pindas in different directions to enable crows to eat the same: Aindra Vaaruna Vaayavyaa Yaamyai Nairrutikaaschaye, tey Kaakaah pratigruhnantu Bhumyaam pindam mayojjitham/ (May the Pindas kept on Bhumi  in Indra-Yama-Nirruti-Varuna-Vayu Dishas be consumed away by crows by way of the remainders of the Pitru Yagnaanna). Further there are two ‘Shunakas’ or dogs in the abode of Lord Yama named ‘Shyama Shabalaas’and  I offer them these Pindas with the supplication to them to safeguard us in our paths! Having done this, the Karta should wash his feet, perform Aachamana and having recited Shaantaa Prithivi  and Vishnu Smarana and enter his house. Manushya Yagna: The Karta should apportion one ‘Atithi bhojana’or sixteen or at least four fistfuls of Anna reciting: Sanakaadi Manushyobhoy hanteydam na mama/ This might be given away to mendicants. 

             Bhinna Paaka Vaishvadeva on Shraddha Dinaas as per Taittireeyaas: On Shradda Dinaas, Taittiriyas observe a separate cooking on account of Vaishvadeva.  Deva Yagna included there would then be Five Yagnas viz. Deva-Pitru-Bhuta-Manushya and Vaishvadeva. Both Yajurvedis and Saama vedis perform Vaishvadeva before the others, Atharva Vedis perform during the course of the Pitru Shraddha while Bruhvachas or Rigvedis perform at the Shraddha sesha. Ahitaagnis perform Vaishvadeva at the beginning itself on the Shraddha Dina. The Taittireeyas make the Sankalpa:  Swarga Pushtyarthamaatma samskaaraartham Praatassayam Vaishva Devam tantrena karishye/ Then Aoupasaagni/Pachanaagni Pratishtha is done, Parisamuhana Parishechana is followed, Anna after ‘Dadhishrayana’ is completed, ‘Abhikaara’ with ghee is performed and after Agni Puja the Anna is made three parts and handed to Agni reciting: Agnaye swaahaa, Vishvebhoy Devebhya sswaaha, Dhruvaaya bhumaayam Swaahaa, Dhruvaksitaye swaha, Akshitaksitaye swaaha, Agnaye swishta -krutaye swahaa/ After this, Parisamuhana and Paryukshana are done, perform Bali daana either by Vyajanaakaara or Chakraakaara. In this connection, Devaahutis are done: Dharmaaya swaahaa, Dharmaayedam, Adharmaaya, Adbhyaha, Oshadhivanaspatatibhyah, Raksho Deva janebhyaha, Gruhaabhyah, Avasaanebhyaha, Avasaana patibhyaha, Sarva bhutebhyah, Kaamaaya, Antarik -shaaya, Yadey jati jagatiyacchacheshtati naamno bhaageyannaamney swaha Naamna idam (some persons say Vaayava idam/) Thus there would be Samuha Parishachana to all: Prithivyai swaha, Antarikshaye swaha, Divey swaha, Suryaya swaha, Chandramasey swaha,  Nakshatrebhyah swaha, Indraya swaha, Brihaspateye swaha, Prajapataye swaha, Brahmaney swaha/  In case, parishechana is to be done individually, then Dwaavekam dvyecha chatwaari pratyekatreenichaivahi, Prithivyaadi dashaswekaata Urthwam prathakramaat/ ie. one parishechana to the first two and so on. Then by taking to ‘Praacheenaaveeti’ then turning to South perform as Swadhaa pitrubhya swaaha  and being ‘Uttaromukha’ Namo Rudraaya Pashupataye swaaha separately.  This is Vaishvadeva Vidhana all about. 

              Deva Yagna Chatushtaya:  To recount, there are four kinds beginning with Deva Yagna.  This is commenced with the Sankalpa: Deva yagnena yakshye and then Agni parisheyana with  Devebhya -sswaaha  concluding with Uttara Parishena. In ‘prachinaveeti’ Pitru Yagna ‘ sankalpa ‘ be done with  Yagnena yakshye and on South side of Bhumi recite: Pitrubhya sswadhastu/  Then in Upaveeti position touch water and make the Sankalpa: Bhuta yagnena yakshye and Bhutebhyo namah/  and keep the Havishaanna on the ground. Another part of the Anna is offered as Manushya Yagna with the Mantra Manushebhoy hanta.  In all the Yagnas, the terminal Mantra would be Vidyudasi vishtirasi/  Earlier in the Pitru Yagna the remainder of Bali Anna should be thrown up to the Sky from thebackyard of the Karta’s house saying Ye Bhutaah pracgharanti/ There after some Anna is provided to dogs and crows too as per one’s own tradition.

             Kaatyana  vidhana of  Deva Yagnaadi: To Kakatitya Saagnikas on a Shraddha day, Vaishvadeva is the first of the Paaka Karya and not the last.The Kartha transfers a burning wood from the Agni Griha meant for the Shraaddha to Grihaagni and a portion of the Anna Paaka so cooked in it is soaked with ghee and makes the Sankalpa: Atmaanna samskaaraartham Vaishwa devam karishye/  or Devabhuta pitru Manushya Yagnaan Vaishwa devaannena yakshye/  Then Jala Prokshana is done around Grihaagni and with his hand a portion of the Anna is offered to it stating Brahmaney swwaahaa idam Brahmane na mama; Prajaapataye grihyaabhyah Kashyapaaa, Anumataye and conclude the Deva Yagna. This would be followed by two Bali daanaas stating Dhatrey , Vidhatrey, make a square with water and offer Bali Anna to four Dishas and in the center state: Brahmaney, Antarikshaaya, Suryaya  in the ‘Praksamstha’ and to the ‘Uttara’ direction recite Ushasey Bhutaanaam pataye/ This is method of Kakatiya’s Bhuta Yagna. Thereafter, the Karta would assume Pracheenaaveeti and offer Pirtru Tirtha through the thumb and fingers stating Pitrubhyassvadhaanama idam Pitrubhyo na mama; this is theKaakatiya way of Pitru Yagna. After cleaning up the vessel with water and in Savya position the Karta would offer this water stating Yakshmaitatthey nirneyjanam and drop the water; this is the Manushya Yagna vidhaana. In the event of the Kartha not possessing Grihagni, then he could carry one Agni Kaashta from Lokagni, install it saying Prushthodivi and other Saavitra Mantras viz.Tatsavituh taag savituh; Vishvaani devaa. He would then observe Nityopaasana Homa and prepare Anna Paaka to offer to Vaishvedeva. Katyaanas perform Vaishva    Deva only in the day but not in the evenings. Saama Vedis and Atharva Vedis perform Pancha Yagnas only in their Grihagnis only. Bahvruchas or Rig Vedis perform Pancha Yagnas on the same analogy of Upanayana Vivahaas ie by depending on Lokaagnis in case Grihagni is unavailable.

             Sarva Saadhaarana Bhojana Vidhi: The best way of taking Bhojana is to use a golden or silveren plate failing which a plate of stitched mango leaves. If it  is a brass or broze or any other metal plates, then theu would be of resrtictive usage to a specific person only. Then, Taamboolaabhyanjanam chaiva Kaamsya paatrey cha bhojanam, Yatischa Brahma chaari cha vidhavaa cha vivarjatet/ (Sanyaasis, Brahmachaaris and widows are forbidden to take oil baths, betel leaves and Kamsya Patra bhojana. Kadali Kutaja Madhu JambuPanasaamra champakodumbara patraani shastaani/ Banana leaves, or of Kutaja, Mahuva,  Jaambu , Panasa, Mango, Champaka or Aoudumbara leaves are recommended to take bhojana. But Arka, Ashvattha or Peepul, and  Vata vriksha leaves are forbidden as ‘Bhojana Patraas’. The Kartha should first perform Pancha Yagnas, pick up the ‘seshaghritanna’ from the Bhojana Paatra, serve it with his right hand wearing a knotless pavitra, stating Om Bhur -bhuvasswaha tat savitur varenyam bhargo Devasya dheemahi, does the ‘abhimantrana’ and Satyamtwartena parishimchaami/  (in the nights Rutamtwa satyena parishimchami); after doing the ‘parishena’, state Antascharati bhuteshu guhaayaam Vishwato mukhah, Twam yagnastwam vashatkaarastwam Vishnuh Purusha parah/ , offer three Balis uttering Bhupataye namah, Bhuvana pataye namah, Bhutaanaam pataye namah/ or Chitraaya, Chitra guptaaya,Yamaaya, Yama Dharmaauya, Sarva Bhutebhyah as the fourth Bali;  ensure that his hands, feet and face are wet, take water in hand for ‘Aouposshana’ stating Annam Brahma Raso Vishnuh, Aham Vaishvaanaro bhutwa/; drink the water uttering Amritopastaranamasi, keep silent for a while to perform five Aahutis to the face / mouth picking up five morsels of food with all the fingers stating: Om Pranaaya swaaha,Om Apanaaya swaha, Om Vyanaaya swaha, Om Udaanaaya swaha, Om Samaanaaya swaaha  and the sixth word Om Brahmaney swaaha/  The Karta should not touch the Jala Patra till the ‘praanaahutis’ are over and then touch it and while observing silence commence eating  the Bhojana. It is the best facing the East or West while eating; seating southward provides fulfillment and fame; facing North is of medium value; but one should never eat facing in the ‘Vidishas’.

             After the Bhojana the Karta drinks half mouthful of water and with the rest of it in hand encircles the plate in reverse direction stating Amritaabhidhaanamasi/ ; drops the Pavitra on the ground, remembers the IshtaDevata, does ‘mukha marjana’ sixteen times and finally two Achamanas outside the Bhojanma Griha. Without doing Achamana, one should not go for ablutions. One should not have his bhojana without serving the old members of the family and also to young children. One should not drink  water from his or her ‘Anjali’ or folded palms. Excepting at the time of Vivaha, the Karta and his wife are not to take food together. Food consumption should not be done seated with extended legs.Never eat in a ‘Pankti’ or line in which known bad characters. Never resort to eating in an empty house or Agni Griha or a Temple’s interior. Never eat in the Sandhya times or midnight or without wearing ‘yagnopa -veeta’or with left hand.

While eating, the order of eats should be sweets first, savouries in the middle and liquids in between hard  and fried items. Sarvam sasesha mashnee yaannissesham Ghritapaayasam/ ie. Ghrita Paayasa shoud be consumed in full without leaving even small quantity. Milk, Curd and Honey must be consumed daily. Such items are to be consumed only at lunch or dinner but not in between. Arkaparva dwaye raatrou Chaturdashyashta- meedivaa, Ekadashyamahoraatram bhuktwaa chandraayanam charet/  ( One should not take food on the nights of Sundays and ‘Purnimaavaasyaas’ as also during the day time on Chaturdashi and Ashtami; on Ekadashis however one should observe full fasting by day and night too). Yastu paani taley bhunktey yascha phukkaara samyutam, Prasrutaanguli -bhiryaschatasya go maamsavachaata/ (One should not eat food by picking it up by hand or straight from the storage vesselor  while doing ‘phootkaara’ or with streched fingers; such eating is considered as that of cow meat).

             Naajeerney bhojanam krutwaatkuryaannaati bubhukshitah, naardraavaasaa naardra shiraa napaadaa ropitey -karey/ (Never eat while in indigestion, nor without hunger, never too with wet clothes nor wet head;  never also eat while keeping hand on the feet. Nocchishto ghritamaada -yyaanna padaa bhajanam sprushet/  ( Do not pick up Ghritha Patra one self while in the process of eating, nor move the Bhojana Patraas by feet). Do not perform ‘Auoposhana’ in a Pankti while other Brahmanas are still eating; whosoever either does so or leaves away ignoring others still eating is forbidden since the one who leaves and another who continues to eat are both blemishable. Lavanam vyanjanmam chaibva Ghritam Tailam tathaivacha, Lehyam peyam cha vividham hastadattam na bhakshayet/ ( One should not serve by one’s hand items such as Salt, Pickles, Ghee, Oils, Liquids nor one should accept and consume the same).

Taamrey gavyam Kaamsey Naarikelekshu rasou sagudam  daandha saguda maadrakam cha Madyasamam/ (Cow milk served in copper vessels and Sugarcane juice in bronze vessels, jaggery mixed curd or jaggery mixed ‘Adrak’ or ginger are worse than Madya or intoxicants.  Udakyaamapi chaandaalam shwaanam kukkutamevacha, Bhujaano yadi pashyeta tadannantu parityajet/ ( While taking the food, if one comes across a woman in menses, a chandala,a dog, or a hen, the rest of the meal must be discontinued.) Like wise, food material touched by crows or othe birds, cat, dogs or other animals should be discarded. Food cooked with hairs, ants, flies etc. should be discarded too. Normally food cooked on the previous day should not be recycled but the carry forward fried food, curd or its layers are consumable on the next day. Milk of camels, sheep or other forest animals is forbidden for consumption. Eating Onions and Lassan calls for Chandrayana Vrata Prayaschitta. The left-over food should be given away to negligible Praanis saying Rouravey puya nilaye Padmaarbuda nivaasinaam, Praaninaam sarva bhutaanaamakshayya mupatishtthatu/ Also Aachantopya shuchistaavadyaavat paatra manuddhrutam, Uddhrutepya shuchistaavannomrujjutey Mahi/ ( It is stated that till such time ‘Shuddaachamana’ is done, Bhojana Paatraas are removed for cleaning and Bhumi is cleaned up with cow dung water, the ‘Karya krama’ of Bhojana is not stated to have concluded finally). Parnasya -agraan cha moolamcha siraamchaiva viseshatah, Churna parnam varjyayitwaa taambulam khadayedbudhah/  (While eating the Tamboola or betel leaves as the finale of the Bhojana, the Bhojana Karta is advised to remove the mid- leaf tenders and consume without ‘churna’ to enable good digestion of the food consumed.)

Om Tat Sat


(My humble salutations to  the lotus feet of Sri Chandrasekharendra Saraswathi Mahaswamy ji and also my humble greatulness to  Brahmasree Sreeman V D N Rao ji Philosophic Scholar for the collection)


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