Which are the debts each individual has to repay?

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Which are the debts each individual has to repay?


1. Different aspects and mysteries of Righteousness (Dharma)

Sense organs are not meant for enjoyment rather to gain mastery over them. Mastery over sense organs (jitendriya) refers to one’s original absolute state. One cannot acquire it at once hence while experiencing all worldly pleasures Righteousness gradually inculcates detachment for that happiness and in due course of time bestows one with the state of Absoluteness (Purnavastha). ‘Absence of desire and sound physical health are the two features of progress of Righteousness. One cannot experience the Bliss of Self-realisation without them. Detachment for objects is necessary to reduce desires. It is generated only after realising the impermanence of objects, their dependence on an external source and after acquiring the knowledge of the soul. Physical health is attained when the body receives what is essential for it such as food, water, clothing, shelter, etc. Procuring these commodities is impossible without performing actions (karma). Hence with the help of both knowledge and action can a superior quality of happiness or Bliss of Self-realisation be experienced. It is not feasible to acquire it by knowledge or action alone.
One should aspire to live for a hundred years while performing one’s duties. There is no alternative to remaining detached (from desires leading to action). Those who simply perform actions get ensnared in the depths of darkness. Similarly those who remain engrossed solely in the study of scriptures get even more entrapped in darkness. Spiritual knowledge (vidya) and nescience (avidya) both should be realised simultaneously. The one who realises these overcomes death with nescience [action (karma)] and acquires the nectar (amrut) of Bliss of Self-realisation through spiritual knowledge (vidya) [knowledge and detachment]. (Ishavasyopanishad 1.11)
From this it becomes obvious that both action and knowledge are responsible for endowing the Bliss of Self-realisation. Out of these, actions can be called worldly pursuits (pravrutti) and knowledge and its desire as the path of Spirituality (nivrutti). This union of materialism and Spirituality is the true secret of Righteousness. The action without expectation (nishkam karma) spoken of in the Bhagvadgita is actually this union.’(1)

2. Doctrines of Righteousness (Dharmasiddhant)

Righteousness (Dharma) has doctrines but no rules. A rule can have exceptions but a doctrine cannot. A doctrine does not change, it is beyond time. God who is existing since times immemorial is unchanging so are the doctrines of realising Him. So Righteousness too never changes. This is akin to the mathematical equation that ‘2 + 2 = 4 ’, which will never change. With the passage of time due to historical events (internal as well as external) the details of observing Righteousness keep changing; but society should not forget that sooner or later that changed (altered) account will unite with the doctrine. Some doctrines of Righteousness are elucidated further.

2.1 Existence of God

Righteousness believes in the existence of God. Creation, sustenance and dissolution of the universe are under The Lord’s control.

2.2 Various deities

Though The Supreme God is only one, the code of Righteousness mentions the names of several deities because the proportion of the five cosmic elements, three components (gun), accumulated account (sanchit) and destiny and proportion of components of the subtle body, etc. in each one is variable. Accordingly the code of Righteousness recommends the worship of a particular (male or female) deity to be able to realise God. Often reference to thirty-three crores of deities is made. For detailed information on deities refer ‘Science of Spirituality : Vol. 7 - Supreme God, God, Incarnations and Deities’.

2.3 The concept of debts

‘Man gets easy access to the objects created by God, hence he becomes indebted to the deities. He acquires the knowledge generated by the ancient sages so he becomes indebted to Them. He remains indebted to his ancestors as they have propagated their lineage and are the cause for his birth. Apart from this every man with whom one has had some sort of contact must have given one something explicitly or secretly. This is the debt unto society. Every individual has to repay all these four debts.’(2)
The Taittiriya Sanhita ( quotes that one born as a Brahman has three debts to pay. (He has to repay them during his lifetime.) The three debts to sages, deities and ancestors can be repaid by studying and acquiring knowledge (and if possible adding matter to the existing knowledge), by hosting and performing ritualistic worship (puja) and by (righteous) procreation respectively. The holy text the Shatpath Brahman ( improvised this concept, added the debt unto mankind (manushyarun) and applied this doctrine to all mankind. Mutual co-operation and serving others can help to repay this debt unto mankind. In the concept of the five debts, the debt unto guests (atithirun) is included instead of the debt unto mankind and the fifth debt unto the cosmic elements and everything that arises out of them (bhutrun) is added. These debts are repaid by performing the five great sacrificial fires (panchamahayadnya) in the stage of the householder. [Refer ‘Science of Spirituality : Vol. 1 C. Varnashramvyavastha, Chapter 1 C B. Stages of life (ashrams), point - The stage of the householder (gruhasthashram)’.] It is preached that heaven cannot be attained without repaying these debts.

2.4 Actions for the sake of another

‘The question which arises is whether one should perform all actions by oneself, take assistance from others or assist others. If one has to perform all actions like farming, manufacturing the implements required for farming, building a house, weaving cloth, etc. all by oneself then one will not be able to do justice to even one of them. However if the mode of mutual assistance is adopted then each one performs only one action and then exchanges the benefits of that action with others. Since each one performs only one act he becomes an expert in that field and the results too are excellent.
This gives rise to the doctrine that people should assist one another and achieve supreme prosperity (supreme happiness). A major part of Righteousness (Dharma) is encompassed by this doctrine. The objective of the institution of marriage is the welfare of both spouses by mutual co-operation and assistance. Similarly the objective of the insitution of a family is to achieve worldly prosperity and spiritual progress with mutual love and co-operation between the father and sons or between brothers.
The motive of the system of classes (varnyavyavastha) too was achievement of excellence by each class in its own sphere for the welfare of society. The motive behind making offerings (dan) to Brahmans was to enable them to devote all their time for imparting knowledge for the betterment of the other classes. Similarly the symbiotic relationship between a king and his subjects included enriching the king by paying taxes in return for his protecting them from unrighteous and antisocial elements. Other relationships like that between a Guru and a disciple, a master and a servant, etc. are all based on their ability to attain the ultimate happiness. The verse (shloka) from chapter (adhyay) 3 of the Bhagvadgita clearly illustrates how Lord Shrikrushna preaches this doctrine.
देवान्‌ भावयतानेन ते देवा भावयन्‍तु व: 
परस्‍परं भावयन्‍त: श्रेय: परमवाप्‍स्‍यथ ।।११।।
Meaning: Fulfill the desires of (appease) the deities by performing sacrificial fires (yadnya). Then they too will fulfill your desires (endow prosperity). In this way by mutually satisfying each other’s emotions both can attain the ultimate benefaction.
This righteous doctrine of mutually fostering emotions is very important. Not only is it applicable to humans but also to animals and man and between families, communities and nations. As the conduct worthy of this doctrine goes on increasing in the world, happiness and prosperity shall progressively materialise.

2.5 Benefaction

One cannot prosper without bringing about the welfare of others. It cannot be accomplished without acquiring spiritual love (priti) from others. This itself is benefaction. The difference between mutual emotion and benefaction is that in the former there is an agreement of exchange either expressed or implied which is absent in the latter. However benefaction also results in acquiring a certain benefit.’ (3)

2.6 Concept of the classes and the stages of life (varnashram)

The aim of this system is to bring about progress in personal life through the system of stages of life and that of society through the system of classes. Refer ‘Science of Spirituality : Vol. 1 C - Varnashramvyavastha’.

2.7 Concept of the pursuits of life (purusharthas)

Striving earnestly to accomplish the targets of Righteousness is known as the concept of the pursuits of life. The scriptures prescribe four pursuits viz. righteous conduct (Dharma), acquisition of wealth by honest means (artha), desire for physical and mental happiness (kama) and liberation of the embodied soul from the vast ocean of materialistic life, that is attainment of the Final Liberation (Moksha). Initially there was a belief in only the first three pursuits and they were called the three parts (trivarga). During the period of the Upanishads the fourfold concept of pursuits came into existence with the Final Liberation acquiring the fourth position.
Man and woman get attracted towards each one because of sexual desire and this leads to procreation. Sexual intercourse is one of the rituals in a sacrificial fire (yadnya) in which the man deposits his sperms into the birth passage (symbolic of the sacrificial pit of fire) of the woman to give birth to man. Yashodhar, a commentator on the Kamasutra (a holy text on the art of sex) states that suppressing sexual desire leads to illnesses such as insanity and physical ill health.
‘Desire, that is acquisition of happiness is considered inferior to the other three pursuits of life. Authors of our scriptures on Righteousness (Dharma) however have not totally condemned desire. The Manusmruti (5-56) says that the natural tendency of all animals is the fulfillment of mediocre and base desires such as hunger, thirst and object pleasure. Man being superior to other animals he should either try to detach himself from such desires or control them.’(4)
‘In the Mahabharat, the glory of Righteousness, wealth and desire is sung of in several instances. When reading that one thing which becomes clear is that Indian philosophers considered all the three pursuits of life equally important. In the Mahabharat, time and again various philosophers have stated that although Righteousness is undoubtedly extremely important if one neglects the other two pursuits of wealth and desire by concentrating only on Righteousness, then it will lead to self-destruction.’(5)
From the ethical viewpoint (nitishastra) the concept of the pursuits of life is very precious. Righteousness or the Final Liberation cannot be the only target of life. They also require the support of wealth and desire in accordance with Righteousness. One should acquire wealth (धर्मेण अर्थ: ।) and fulfill desires through righteous conduct (धर्मेण काम: ।). In the Gita (7.11) The Lord has said that desire which is not opposed to Righteousness is His personage. The holy text Apastamba ( also reiterates the same. Authors of Indian scriptures have incorporated the pursuit of wealth and desire into the worldly life of man thus laying the foundation for his moral and righteous life. They have also established a harmonious relationship between selfishness and altruism and strengthened the mutual bond between man and society. The Final Liberation is considered as the supreme pursuit of human life, the ultimate target of human existence. To accomplish these pursuits it is necessary for each one to try and develop the moral values of truth, non-violence, etc.
Moksha and Nirvan are both synonymous and mean the Final Liberation. The Darshans of Sankhya, Yoga, Vedanta, etc. accepted the word ‘Moksha’ while the Jains and Buddhists, the word Nirvan. Nirvan (निर्वाण) is derived from nir (निर्‌) meaning absence and van (वान) meaning wish or desire that is overcoming or dissolution of all kinds of desires or wishes.
The table below gives the importance of a pursuit of human life (purushartha) in a particular yug (era).

1. Righteousness


2. Wealth


3. Desire

4. Final Liberation

2.8 Resistance against the unrighteous itself is non-violence

‘This is meant to illustrate whether righteous people should punish unrighteous ones or not. Unrighteousness by others will not only cause us unhappiness but will also cause them sorrow. That is why their unrighteous behaviour has to be curbed. If this is not done then we will have to endure a fraction of their demerits stemming from their unrighteous behaviour.
As far as possible this should be done by conciliation. However if this is not possible then he should be punished. Punishing an unrighteous man does not tantamount to violence. In this context violence does not mean inflicting unhappiness but implies harm. When punishing an evildoer the aim is not to make him unhappy rather to alleviate the harm caused to him and also to allow him to attain a higher quality of happiness acquired by following Righteousness (Dharma). If this concept of non-violence is clearly understood then there will be no more confusion about violence and non-violence.
के  हिंसन्‍ति जीवान्‍वै लोकेऽस्‍मिन्‌ व्‍दिजसत्तम 
बहु संचिन्‍त्‍य इति वै नास्‍ति कश्चिदहिंसक: ।।
अहिंसायां तु निरता यतयो व्‍दिजसत्तम 
कुर्वन्‍त्‍येव हि हिंसां ते यत्‍नादल्‍पतरा भवेत्‌ ।।
महाभारत ३.२०८.३३-३४
Meaning: O chief among the Brahmans, who in this world does not indulge in violence ? After thinking this over several times it appears that there is none (in this world) who is non-violent. - Mahabharat 3.208.33-34
Violence even occurs at the hands of ascetics who earnestly strive for non-violence. However it is minimal as they make continual efforts to prevent it.
Non-violence is not a principle of Righteousness rather a bare minimum of violence is a principle of Righteousness. For people who are appointed in the government on posts where they have to indulge in violence as part of their work, it becomes a duty. Violence occurs even in farming and in terms of day-to-day life such violence is inevitable.’(6)

2.9 Idol worship

‘Vedic religion did not incorporate idol worship. Indra, Varun, Som, etc. were the presiding deities of actually visible physical events occurring in the universe. The Vedas have verses in praise of them and have also described them in human form. In the Upanishads the concept of Parabrahman (Supreme Brahman) became deeply rooted and Its contemplation (nididhyas) became the sole mode of worship. With the passage of time there was an admixture of the philosophies of the Aryans and non-Aryans which gave rise to the Hindu religion. It was then that ritualistic worship of God in different forms began. Hindus accepted ritualistic worship of the linga (divine phallus) from the Sindhu culture. However idols with human forms were created for other deities. For the average man it becomes difficult to worship the formless, unmanifest Supreme God; hence worshippers of the manifest (sagun) form felt the necessity for idols and began to follow the path of ritualistic worship of deities.’ (7)

2.10 Different kinds of spiritual practice

The quote ‘साधनानां अनेकता  उपास्‍यानाम्‌ अनियम्‌: ’ means that the potential of every individual is variable hence like other religions the Hindu religion does not recommend only one path or worship of only one deity. In the Gita (7.21) The Lord says,
यो यो  यां यां तनुं भक्‍त: श्रद्धाऽर्चितुमिच्‍छति 
तस्‍य तस्‍याचलां श्रद्धा तामेव विद्याम्‍यहम्‌ ।।
Meaning: I steady the faith of a devotee in a particular deity which he wishes to worship with faith.
Thus the pervasiveness of the Hindu religion encompasses the entire, vast universe.

2.11 Heaven and hell

‘One does not experience the results of merits or sins acquired in a particular birth in that birth itself; hence the concept (a reality) of heaven and hell that is of invisible results of fate came into being.

2.12 Rebirth

Hindus believe that based on actions in previous births a soul takes rebirth in different species (yoni). The doctrine of Karma says that one has to face the results of merits and demerits done in this birth in future births. Similarly one experiences happiness and unhappiness in this birth based on the accumulated account (sanchit) created in past births. One cannot escape the results of an action. All the sects in the Hindu religion have accepted the concept of the soul going through the cycles of birth and death. Liberation from these cycles of birth and death and from rebirth is itself the Final Liberation (Moksha). Man can attain the Final Liberation by following the Path of Action (Karmayoga), Path of Knowledge (Dnyanyoga) or Path of Devotion (Bhaktiyoga).’(8)

2.13 Liberation during embodiment (Sadeha Mukti)

An individual can merge in The Supreme God completely even when alive. This has been exemplified by numerous highly evolved sages, ascetics and saints in the past and even today.

3. Features of Righteousness

3.1 According to Manu

धृति: क्षमा दमोऽस्‍तेयं शौचमिन्‍द्रियनिग्रह: 
धीर्विद्या सत्‍यमक्रोधो दशकं धर्मलक्षणम्‌ ।। (मनुस्‍मृति ६.९२)
Meaning: Contentment, mercy, control over the mind, not committing theft, external and internal purification, restraint over senses, intellect desirous to acquire spiritual knowledge, Self-realisation, truth and absence of anger are the ten features of Righteousness (Dharma). - Manusmruti 6.92

3.2 According to Yadnyavalkya

Yadnyavalkya describes nine features of Righteousness instead of ten. They are -
अहिंसा सत्‍यमस्‍तेयं शौचमिन्‍द्रियनिग्रह: 
दानं दमो दया क्षान्‍ति: सर्वेषां धर्मसाधनम्‌ ।।
Meaning: Non-violence, truth, not committing theft, internal and external purity, restraint over sense organs, offering (dan) of food, water, etc., preventing the mind from contemplating on forbidden subjects, compassion for the weak and downtrodden and not allowing agitation of the mind despite being harmed by another are the tools of Righteousness.
Intellect desirous to acquire spiritual knowledge and Self-realisation from among the features prescribed by Manu are missing in the above verse. However offering is a feature which has been added.’(9)

4. Future of Righteousness

Over the ages different cultures and religious orders the world over have been destroyed yet Righteousness has remained secure despite it having to face all kinds of crises. It has stood the test of time of millions of years and is still in good stead. It is eternal because it is the Absolute Truth. Time (kal) can destroy only the untruth. Only Righteousness which has no origin can remain till eternity. Righteousness being a quality of The Lord Himself, it too is eternal like Him.

4.1 Righteousness persists despite invasions by other religions

‘How did this Aryan country survive the bid of conversion to Buddhism, Islam and Christianity though these religions (religious orders) have managed to have many a nation adopt their faiths?
·         The Aryans know from their holy text, the Bhavishyapuran that all these three religions are different forms of their own religion according to their varying potential.
·         The Aryan religion includes both, what is present and what is lacking in other religions. Followers of other religions while living in the company of the Aryans realised that what is absent in the Aryan religion is also absent in other religions.
·         Though other religions have made great efforts to destroy the Aryan religion due to its tolerant attitude philosophers felt it unwise to destroy the Aryans.’(10)

5. Types of Righteousness (Dharma)

Righteousness has the following different types with a restricted meaning.

5.1 Average Righteousness (moral Righteousness)

क्षमा सत्‍यं दम: शौचं दानमिन्‍द्रियसंयम: 
अहिंसा गुरुशुश्रूषा तीर्थानुसरणं दया ।।
आर्जवं लोभशून्‍यत्‍वं देवब्राह्मणपूजनम्‌ 
अनभ्‍यसूया  तथा धर्म: सामान्‍य उच्‍यते ।। - विष्‍णुधर्मसूत्र २.१६-१७
Meaning: Average Righteousness includes mercy, truth, control over the mind, purity, making offerings (dan), control over the senses, non-violence, service of the Guru, embarking on a pilgrimage, compassion, honesty, absence of greed, honouring of deities and Brahmans and not criticising anyone. - Vishnudharmasutra 2.16-17
In the Gautam Dharmasutra the above moral values are called the qualities of the soul principle. This form of Righteousness is applicable equally to all. It includes both types of Righteousness that of inspiration (chodana) and of worldly and spiritual progress (abhyuday).

5.2 Righteousness of a class (varnadharma)

The code of Righteousness which is applicable to a particular class is known as Righteousness of a class. The four classes are the Brahman (priest), Kshatriya (warrior), Vaishya (businessman) and Shudra (labourer). [Refer to ‘Science of Spirituality : Vol. 1 C - Varnashramvyavastha, Chapter 1 C A. The four classes (chaturvarnya)’.]

5.3 Righteousness according to the caste (jatidharma)

One does not come across the word caste (jati) in the Vedas and Upanishads. This parlance came into usage during the period of the Sutras. Gautam and Manu have prescribed the code of Righteousness of castes. Gautam (Dharmasutra 11.20) says that if the code of Righteousness of castes is not contrary to the Vedas then it can be considered as the authority in Spirituality. [Refer ‘Science of Spirituality : Vol. 1 C - Varnashramvyavastha, Chapter 1 C A. The four classes (chaturvarnya), point - Castes’.]

5.4 Righteousness according to the stage of life (ashramdharma)

This is limited to a particular stage of life. [Refer ‘Science of Spirituality : Vol. 1 C - Varnashramvyavastha, Chapter 1 C B. Stages of life (ashrams)’.]

5.5 Code of Righteousness according to the class and stage of life (varnashramdharma)

This is applicable to an individual of a particular class in a particular stage of life, e.g. A Brahman (priest) in the stage of celibacy (brahmachari) should use a staff made from the palas tree and a deerskin for a seat.

5.6 Code of Righteousness according to the qualities (gunadharma)

This refers to the duty to be performed in accordance with the role he is playing or the position he is occupying, e.g. the duty of a king belonging to any class is to nurture his subjects, etc.

5.7 Code of Righteousness according to the reason (nimittadharma)

This is the variation in behaviour that one has to make according to the prevailing circumstances, e.g. medical treatment for a dog bite and performing acts of penitence to overcome the increase in raja tama components generated by touching the dog.

5.8 Code of Righteousness in times of adversity (apaddharma)

This is expressed by the quote ‘आपदि कर्तव्‍यो धर्म: ’ meaning the code of Righteousness which should be observed during a calamity. In the system of the four classes each class is assigned its religious duties. ‘Often due to divine and earthly (spiritual or physical) crises, revolutions, famine, forcible migration, etc. there results a sudden collapse in the system of classes and it becomes impossible for people to observe tasks prescribed according to the class. In such circumstances as an exception according to an arrangement created by the scriptures, an individual belonging to one class is allowed to accept the code of Righteousness of the other classes. This arrangement is called the code of Righteousness in an adversity. However the scriptures also preach that once the crisis is over or after social life is restored, one should undertake penance and start practising one’s own code of Righteousness (Dharma) once again.’(11) For detailed information on the code of Righteousness for each class in adverse times refer ‘Science of Spirituality : Vol. 1 C - Varnashramvyavastha, Chapter 1 C A. The four classes (chaturvarnya), point - Special features of the classes (varna)’.

5.9 Righteousness of a Shraut, a Smart and a Shishta

Shraut, Smart and Shishta are names of followers of different sects. Among these Righteousness of a Shraut is the most important and that of a Shishta the least.
A. Code of Righteousness of a Shraut (shrautdharma, shrautachar) : This code of conduct includes worship of Agni (deity of fire), performing sacrificial fires such as Darshapurnamas and Somyag described in the Shrutis.
B. Code of Righteousness of a Smart (smartdharma, smartachar) : This includes the rules and codes of conduct to be adopted by the classes and in the various stages of life as described in the Smrutis.
C. Code of Righteousness of protocol (Shishtadharma, Shishtachar) : This incorporates the knowledge acquired from the behaviour of renowned social personalities.’(12)

5.10 Code of Righteousness of a woman (stridharma)

A. भर्तु: शुश्रूषया नारी लभते स्‍वर्गमुत्तम्‌ 
अमि या निर्नमस्‍कारा निवृत्ता देवपूजनात्‌ ।। - रामायण २.२४.२७
     Meaning: (Rama tells Kausalya) The woman who does not pay obeisance to or worship deities, etc. but serves only her husband acquires the supreme heaven. - Ramayan 2.24.27
B. पतिर्हि देवो नारीणां पतिर्बन्‍धु: पतिर्गति: 
पत्‍या समा गतिर्नास्‍ति दैवतं वा यथा पति: ।। - महाभारत १३.१४६.५५
     Meaning: To a woman her husband is her God, companion and seat of seeking refuge. A woman cannot progress spiritually without a husband, truly a husband is equivalent to God. - Mahabharat 13.146.55
C. ‘Vachaspati Mishra is an excellent scholar and commentator (from the 9th century A.D.). He has written commentaries on all Darshans except the Vaisheshik Darshan. As he has expressed his own thoughts on each of these, he is glorified by the title ‘Sarvatantrasvatantra’ meaning one capable of independently interpreting all scriptures. He was the greatest teacher belonging to the non-duality (advait) philosophy during his times. All the teachers who followed him have accepted his opinions as evidence. He wrote the commentary on the Shankarbhashya called the Bhamati. To comprehend Shankarbhashya it is first considered necessary to study this commentary.
A tale below illustrates how engrossed he would be when writing books that he would forget about the external world. Once when writing a commentary on the Shankarbhashya the lamp in his room got extinguished. His wife entered the room, lit the lamp and stood beside him for sometime. Seeing her Vachaspati Mishra asked, “Who are you ?” She responded, “I am your servant”. Upon that he questioned once again, “Do you wish to ask me something ?” She replied, “Service of the husband is the supreme code of Righteousness of a Hindu woman. The purpose of my life is served by being able to serve you. I have no other wish. My only wish is that I should be able to leave this world before you, placing my head onto your feet.” Hearing this Vachaspati realised that she was his wife and was overjoyed. Then he told her, “You are an ideal Hindu woman. This physical body is temporary, it will definitely be destroyed but I will make you immortal. This commentary of mine will be named Bhamati after you.” In this way he named his commentary on the Shankarbhashya, Bhamati thus making her immortal. People too began to recognise him, the author of Bhamati as Bhamatikar.’(13)

5.11 Code of Righteousness of a sati (satidharma)

A woman who immolates herself on her husband’s funeral pyre is called a sati and the custom is called the custom of sati. Other synonyms for it are dying together (sahamaran), departing together (sahagaman), anvarohan, anumaran, etc. ‘When a widow immolates herself on her husband’s funeral pyre that act is called sahamaran, sahagaman or anvarohan. However when she immolates herself along with her husband’s ashes, wooden footwear (paduka) or even in the absence of such memoirs but not on her husband’s funeral pyre it is referred to as anumaran.’(14)
‘The greatest objective behind it, is to reunite with the husband in the subtle worlds, after death. Various reasons such as mutual love between the couple, desire for an eternal, unbroken companionship, helplessness created by the husband’s death, worry about maintaining her chastity, social attitudes towards widows, etc. are responsible for it. If the woman has a small child, is pregnant or has her menstrual period, then she should not immolate herself on her husband’s funeral pyre.’(15)

5.12 Others

The code of Righteousness of various terms such as those of the family (kuladharma), temperament (svabhavdharma), discipline (nemdharma), nation (rashtradharma), universal (vishvadharma), etc. are also described.

6. The changing forms of the path of observing Righteousness (Dharma)

Since times immemorial the doctrine of Righteousness that is of realisation of God has remained the same; hence Righteousness too has remained the same. Just as the mathematical equation ‘2+2=4’ will never change with time, so is this. Despite this being so the doctrine of Righteousness is eternal and permanent whereas the part concerning observance of Righteousness being related to the place and time undergoes metamorphoses. To facilitate this change appropriately guidance is provided by the scriptures.

‘Righteousness (Dharma)’, published by Sanatan Sanstha.
Bharatiya Sanskrutikosh. Publisher: Pandit Mahadevshastri Joshi, Secretary, Bharatiya Sanskrutikosh Mandal, 410 Shanivar Peth, Pune 411 030.
First edition: Vol. 3 to 10, Second edition: Vol. 1 and 2
[1]. Vol. 4, Pg. 565              [2]. Vol. 10, Pg. 351
[3]. Vol. 4, Pg. 565-566      [5]. Vol. 7, Pg. 175
[6]. Vol. 4, Pg. 567              [7]. Vol. 10, Pg. 350
[8]. Vol. 10, Pg. 350, 351    [9]. Vol. 4, Pg. 567-568
[11]. Vol. 4, Pg. 571, 572    [13]. Vol. 8, Pg. 556
[15]. Vol. 9, Pg. 618-619

Dharmashastracha Itihas (first and second halves). Second edition : 1980, Publisher : Secretary, Maharashtra State Literary and Cultural Society, Secretariat, Mumbai 400 0034.
[4]. Pg. 108                          [12]. Pg. 107
[14]. Pg. 247

[10]. Sadhubodh. Shri Gulabrav Maharaj Virachit Prashnottaratmak Suktiratnavali - Ashtamayashti. Publisher : Shri Dnyaneshvar Madhuradvait Sampradayik Mandal, Dahisath, Amravati., Pg. 170



Om Tat Sat

(My humble salutations to Sanatan Sanstha and Hindu Jagruti for the collection)

(The Blog  is reverently for all the seekers of truth, lovers of wisdom and   to share the Hindu Dharma with others on the spiritual path and also this is purely  a non-commercial blog)


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